PSYCH  Vol.2 No.2 , April 2011
The Influence of Social and Individual Variables on Ethnic Attitudes in Guatemala
ABSTRACT
Ethnic attitudes may be a consequence of both group membership, as posited by Social Identity Theory (SIT), and of individual difference characteristics, as posited by Social Dominance Theory. University students in Guatemala (N = 196) reported their ethnic identity and completed a battery of surveys including Social Dominance Orientation (SDO), social distance, gender role attitudes, and social desirability scales. Results indicated that similar ethnicity, low SDO, close social distance and egalitarian gender role attitudes accurately predicted positive attitudes toward the Indigenous group. Similar ethnicity, close social distance, and high social desirability predicted positive attitudes toward the super-ordinate (Ladino) group. These results imply that many factors affect attitudes toward ethnic groups, such as SDO, gender role attitudes and social desirability. These results have implications for theories of inter-group relations and also for potential interventions to improve ethnic relations in Guatemala.

Cite this paper
nullAshdown, B. , Gibbons, J. , Hackathorn, J. & Harvey, R. (2011). The Influence of Social and Individual Variables on Ethnic Attitudes in Guatemala. Psychology, 2, 78-84. doi: 10.4236/psych.2011.22013.
References
[1]   Aboud, F. E. (1988). Children and prejudice. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Inc.

[2]   Allport, G. W. (1958). The nature of prejudice. New York: Doubleday Anchor Books.

[3]   Bigler, R. S., Brown, C. S., and Markell, M. (2001, July-August). When Groups are not created equal: Effects of group status on the format of intergroup attitudes on children. Child Development, 72, 1151-1162. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00339

[4]   Byrnes, D. A., & Kiger, G. (1988, Spring). Contemporary measures of attitudes toward blacks. Education and Psychological Measurement, 48, 107-118. doi:10.1177/001316448804800113

[5]   Comas-Díaz, L., Lykes, M. B., and Alarcón, R. D. (1998, July). Ethnic conflict and the psychology of liberation in Guatemala, Peru, and Puerto Rico. American Psychologist, 53, 778-792. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.53.7.778

[6]   Ekehammar, B., & Akrami, N. (2003, October). The relation between personality and prejudice: A variable- and a person-centered approach. European Journal of Personality, 17, 449-464. doi:10.1002/per.494

[7]   Ekehammar, B., Akrami, N., Gylje, M., & Zakrisson, I. (2004, September/October). What matters most to prejudice: Big five personality, social dominance orientation or right-wing authoritarianism? European Journal of Personality, 18, 463-482. doi:10.1002/per.526

[8]   Galambos, N. L., Petersen, A. C., Richards, M., & Gitelson, I. B. (1985, September). The attitudes toward women scale for adolescents (AWSA): A study of reliability and validity. Sex Roles, 13, 343-356.

[9]   Gibbons, J. L., & Ashdown, B. K. (2010, June). Ethnic identification, attitudes, and group relations in Guatemala. Psychology, 1, 116-127. doi:10.4236/psych.2010.12016

[10]   Gibson, J. L. (2006, October). Do strong group identities fuel intolerance? Evidence from the South African case. Political Psychology, 27, 665-705. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9221.2006.00528.x

[11]   Katz, I., & Hass, R. G. (1988, December). Racial ambivalence and american value conflict: Correlational and priming studies of dual cognitive structures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 893-905. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.55.6.893

[12]   Little, W. (2004, February) Outside of social movements: Dilemmas of indigenous handicrafts vendors in Guatemala. American Ethnologist, 31, 43-59. doi:10.1525/ae.2004.31.1.43

[13]   Paulhus, D. L. (1984, March). Two-component models of socially desirable responding. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 598-609. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.46.3.598

[14]   Pleck, J. H., Sonenstein, F. L., and Ku, L. C. (1994, April). Attitudes toward male roles among adolescent males: A discriminant validity analysis. Sex Roles, 30, 481-501. doi:10.1007/BF01420798

[15]   Pratto, F., Sidanius, J., Stallworth, L. M., & Malle, B. F. (1994, October). Social dominance orientation: A personality variable predicting social and political attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 741-763. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.67.4.741

[16]   Pratto, F., Liu, J. H., Levin, S., Sidanius, J., Shih, M., Bachrach, H., & Hegarty, P. (2000, May). Social dominance orientation and the legitimization of inequality across cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31, 369-409. doi:10.1177/0022022100031003005

[17]   Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo Humano (2005). Diversidad Etnico-Cultural: La Ciudadanía en un Estado. Informe Nacional de Desarrollo Humano, United Nations System.

[18]   Quintana, S. M., & Segura-Herrera, T. A. (2003, October) Development transformations of self and identity in the context of oppression. Self and Identity, 2, 269-285. doi:10.1080/714050248

[19]   Sidanius, J., Pratto, F., & Bobo, L. (1994, December). Social dominance orientation and the political psychology of gender: A case of invariance? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 998- 1011. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.67.6.998

[20]   Tajfel, H. (1981). Human groups and social categories, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[21]   Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In S. Worchel & W. G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 7-24). Chicago: Nelson Hall.

[22]   Turner, J. C., & Reynolds, K. J. (2001). The social identity perspective in intergroup relations: Theories, themes, and controversies. In R. Brown & S. L. Gaertner (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of social psychology (pp. 133-152). Blackwell: Intergroup Processes.

 
 
Top