FNS  Vol.5 No.8 , March 2014
Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Psidium guajava Fresh Fruits and Flour
Abstract: Psidium guajava fruits are consumed fresh or processed (beverages, syrup, ice cream, jams and jellies). Guayaba is a fruit highly perishable and susceptible to damage during the postharvest. One strategy to overcome this problem is its processing by using techniques that preserve its organoleptic, nutritive and functional properties and allow getting food with added value. The purpose of this study was to obtain flour from fresh fruits cultivated in Argentina Northwestern by lyophilization and to determine the antioxidant activity and the main phytochemicals present in fresh fruits and flour. Nutritional composition (sugar, protein and fat) and the bioactive phytochemicals (total phenolic compounds, flavonoid phenolic, condensed and hydrolizable tannin, ascorbic acid, pigments such as anthocyanin and carotenoids) as well as fiber content, were evaluated. The flour preserved flavor, aroma and color of pulp from fresh fruits. The flour contained around 30% of sugar, 20% of total protein, 0.5% of fat and high level of crude fiber. Carotenoids and ascorbic acid were the dominant phytochemicals in flour as well as in fresh fruits. The guayaba flour showed antioxidant activity with SC50 values similar to fresh fruits. The flour showed nutraceutical characteristics that are demanded by functional food and could be used as a dietary supplement.
Cite this paper: Moreno, M. , Zampini, I. , Costamagna, M. , Sayago, J. , Ordoñez, R. and Isla, M. (2014) Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Psidium guajava Fresh Fruits and Flour. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 5, 725-732. doi: 10.4236/fns.2014.58082.

[1]   Wilson, P.G., O’Brien, M.M. and Gadek, P.A. (2001) Myrtaceae Revisited: A Reassessment of Intrafamilial Groups. American Journal of Botany, 88, 2013-2025.

[2]   Nakasone, H.Y., Brekke, J.E. and Cavaletto, C.G. (1976) Fruit and Yield Evaluation of 10 Clones of Guava (Psidium guajava L.). Research Report. Hawaii Agricultural Experimental Station, 218, 17.

[3]   Padula, M. and Rodriguez-Amaya, D.B. (1986) Characterisation of the Carotenoids and Assessment of the Vitamin A Value of Brasilian guavas (Psidium guajava L.). Food Chemistry, 20, 11-19.

[4]   Mercadante, A.Z., Steck, A. and Pfander, H. (1999) Carotenoids from Guava (Psidium guajava L.): Isolation and Structure Elucidation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47, 145-151.

[5]   Lee, S.K. and Kader, A.A. (2000) Preharvest and Postharvest Factors Influencing Vitamin C Content of Horticultural Crops. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 20, 207-220.

[6]   Hussein, A., Odumeru, J.A., Ayanbadejo, T., Faulkner, H., McNab, W.B., Hager, H. and Szijarto, L. (2000) Effects of Processing and Packaging on Vitamin C and β-Carotene Content of Ready-to-Use (RTU) Vegetables. Food Research International, 33, 131-136.

[7]   Dubois, M., Gilles, K.A., Hamilton, J.K., Rebers, P.A. and Smith, F. (1956) Colorimetric Method for Determination of Sugars and Related Substances. Analytical Chemistry, 28, 350-356.

[8]   Somogyi, M. (1945) A New Reagent for the Determination of Sugar. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 160, 61-68.

[9]   Nelson, N. (1944) A Photometric Adaptation of the Somogyi Method for the Determination of Glucose. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 153, 375-380.

[10]   Bradford, M.M. (1976) A Rapid and Sensitive Method for the Quantitation of Microgram Quantities of Protein Utilizing the Principle of Protein-Dye Binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72, 248-254.

[11]   AOAC (1998) Official Methods of Analysis. 16th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington.

[12]   AOCS (1989) Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemist. Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American.

[13]   Singleton, V.L., Orthofer, R. and Lamuela-Raventos, R.M. (1999) Analysis of Total Phenols and Other Oxidation Substrates and Antioxidants by Means of Folin-Ciocalteu Reagent. Method in Enzymology, 299, 152-178.

[14]   Zoecklein, B.W., Fuelsang, K.C., Gump, B.H. and Nury, F.S. (1990) Phenolic Compounds and Wine Color. Production Wine Analysis, New York, 129-168.

[15]   Prior, R.L., Fan, E., Ji, H., Howell, A., Nico, C., Payne, M.J. and Reed, J. (2010) Multilaboratory Validation of a Standar Method for Quantifying Proanthocyanidins in Cranberry Powders. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 90, 1473-1478.

[16]   Inoue, K.H. and Hagerman, A.E. (1988) Determination of Gallotannins with Rhodanine. Analytical Biochemistry, 169, 363-369.

[17]   Lee, J., Durst, R.W. and Wrolstad, R.E. (2005) Determination of Total Monomeric Anthocyanin Pigment Content of Fruits Juices, Beverages, Natural Colorants, and Wines by the pH Differential Method: Collaborative Study. Journal of AOAC International, 88, 1269-1278.

[18]   Rodríguez-Amaya, D.B. (1999) A Guide to Carotenoid Analysis in Foods. ILDI Press, Washington DC.

[19]   Barros, L., Heleno, S., Carvalho, A. and Ferreira, I. (2010) Lamiaceae Often Used in Portuguese Folk Medicine as a Source of Powerful Antioxidants: Vitamins and Phenolics. Food Science and Technology, 43, 544-550.

[20]   Jaafar, A.R., Rahman, B.R.A., Mahmod, C.Z.N. and Vasudevan, R. (2009) Proximate Analysis of Dragon Fruit (Hylecereuspolyhizus). American Journal of Applied Sciences, 6, 1341-1346.

[21]   Re, R., Pellegrini, N., Proteggente, A., Pannala, A., Yang, M. and Rice-Evans, C. (1999) Antioxidant Activity Applying an Improved ABTS Radical Cation Decolorization Assay. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 26, 1231-1237.

[22]   Mendon?a-Lima, D., Basile-Colugnati, F.A., Padovani, R.M., Rodriguez-Amaya, D.B., Salay, E. and Martins-Galeazzi, M.A. (2006) Tabela Brasileira de Composi??o de Alimentos-TACO. Vers?o 2-Segunda Edi??o. Editorial Campinas, 30-33.

[23]   Torres-Flores, V.I. (2010) Determinación del Potencial Nutritivo y Funcional de Guayaba (Psidium guajava), Cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum) y camu camu (Myrciaria dubia). Quito, Ecuador.

[24]   Spada, P.D.S., Souza, G.G.N., Bertolini, G.V., Henrique, J.A.P. and Salvador, M. (2008) Antioxidant, Mutagenic, and Antimutagenic Activity of Frozen Fruits. Journal of Medicinal Food, 11, 144-151.

[25]   McCook-Russell, K., Nair, M., Facey, P. and Bowen-Forbes, C. (2012) Nutritional and Nutraceutical Comparison of Jamaican Psidium cattleianum (Strawberry guava) and Psidium guajava (Common guava) Fruits. Food Chemistry, 134, 1069-1073.

[26]   Jiménez-Escrig, A., Rincón, M., Pulido, R. and Saura-Calixto, F. (2001) Guava Fruit (Psidium guajava L.) as a New Source of Antioxidant Dietary Fiber. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49, 5489-5493.

[27]   Navarro-González, I., García-Valverde, V., García-Alonso, J. and Periago, M.J. (2011) Chemical Profile, Functional and Antioxidant Properties of Tomato Peel Fiber. Food Research International, 44, 1528-1535.

[28]   González-Castejón, M. and Rodríguez-Casado, A. (2011) Dietary Phytochemicals and Their Potential Effects on Obesity: A Review. Pharmacological Research, 64, 438-455.

[29]   Valente, A., Albuquerque, T., Sanchez-Silva, A. and Costa, H. (2011) Ascorbic Acid Content in Exotic Fruits: A Contribution to Produce Quality Data for Food Composition Databases. Food Research International, 44, 2237-2242.

[30]   Vasco, C, Ruales, J. and Kamal-Eldin, A. (2008) Total Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacities of Major Fruits from Ecuador. Food Chemistry, 111, 816-823.

[31]   Meléndez-Martínez, A.J., Vicario, I.M. and Heredia, F.J. (2007) Provitamin A Carotenoids and Ascorbic Acid Contents of the Different Types of Orange Juices Marketed in Spain. Food Chemistry, 101, 177-184.

[32]   Naguib, Y.M. (2000) Antioxidant Activities of Astaxanthin and Related Carotenoids. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48, 1150-1154.

[33]   González-Cárdenas, I.A. (2010) Caracterización Química del Color de Diferentes Variedades de Guayaba (Psidium guajava L.). Colombiana, CóDIGO 197449, 53.

[34]   Rodríguez-Amaya, D., Kimura, M., Godoy, H. and Amaya-Farfan, J. (2008) Updated Brazilian Database on Food Carotenoids: Factors Affecting Carotenoid Composition. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 21, 445-463.

[35]   Saito, K., Kohno, M., Yoshizaki, F. and Niwano, Y. (2008) Extensive Screening for Edible Herbal Extracts with Potent Scavenging Activity against Superoxide Anions. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 63, 65-70.

[36]   Tapiero, H., Townsend, D.M. and Tew, K.D. (2004) The Role of Carotenoids in the Prevention of Human Pathologies. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 58, 100-110.

[37]   Hamilton, I.M., Gilmore, W.S., Benzie, I.F.F., Mulholland, C.W. and Strain, J.J. (2008) Interactions between Vitamins C and E in Human Subjects. British Journal of Nutrition, 84, 261-267.