Health  Vol.6 No.8 , March 2014
Child Care Providers’ Perceptions of Children’s Lifestyles and Risk Factors for Obesity: A Focus Group Study
Abstract: Objective: This study attempts to understand child care providers’ perceptions of remarkable children’s life s and discusses potentially successful strategies of cooperation among child care providers, parents, and health professionals for health promotion and the prevention of obesity in preschool children. Methods: We conducted 6 focus group discussions consisting of 34 child care providers employed by private and public child care centers, and a public kindergarten in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan. Systematic thematic analysis was conducted to generate themes to address the study questions. Results: What the focus group participants discussed with felt mainly into the 3 different kinds of points: “Concerns of Child Care Providers Regarding Parental Attitudes about Nutrition and Nurture,” “Tensions between Parents and Child Care Providers,” and “Current Obesity Prevention Activities and the Role of Child Care Professionals.” Conclusions: Childcare providers had many concerns that fell into 5 main issues of the possible detrimental effects on children’s health due to parents’ nurturing methods and life s. Participants described possible strategies for the prevention of childhood obesity in childcare settings as well as barriers to effective intervention. Childcare providers felt that a system to demand helps from public health nurses in guiding parents would be effective in preventing childhood obesity.
Cite this paper: Haga, C. , Takagi, S. and Nakagomi, S. (2014) Child Care Providers’ Perceptions of Children’s Lifestyles and Risk Factors for Obesity: A Focus Group Study. Health, 6, 738-747. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.68095.

[1]   World Health Organization (2012) Childhood Overweight and Obesity. Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health.

[2]   Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, Japan (2010) School Hygiene Statistics Working Papers.

[3]   Lissner, L., Sohlström, A., Sundblom, E. and Sjöberg, A. (2010) Trends in Overweight and Obesity in Swedish Schoolchildren 1999-2005: Has the Epidemic Reached a Plateau? Obesity Reviews, 11, 553-559.

[4]   Ogden, C.L., Carroll, M.D., Kit, B.K. and Flegal, K.M. (2012) Prevalence of Obesity and Trends in Body Mass Index among US Children and Adolescents, 1999-2010. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 307, 483-490.

[5]   Olds, T.S., Tomkinson, G.R., Ferrar, K.E. and Maher, C.A. (2009) Trends in the Prevalence of Childhood Overweight and Obesity in Australia between 1985 and 2008. International Journal of Obesity, 34, 57-66.

[6]   Freedman, D.S., Dietz, W.H., Srinivasan, S.R. and Berenson, G.S. (1999) The Relation of Overweight to Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Children and Adolescents: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics, 103, 1175-1182.

[7]   Weiss, R., Dziura, J., Burgert, T.S., Tamborlane, W.V., Taksali, S.E., Yeckel, C.W. and Caprio, S. (2004) Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents. The New England Journal of Medicine, 350, 2362-2374.

[8]   Lewy, V.D., Danadian, K., Witchel, S.F. and Arslanian, S. (2001) Early Metabolic Abnormalities in Adolescent Girls with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. Journal of Pediatrics, 138, 38-44.

[9]   Ludwig, D.S. and Ebbeling, C.B. (2001) Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Children: Primary Care and Public Health Considerations. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 286, 1427-1430.

[10]   Figueroa-Munoz, J.I., Chinn, S. and Rona, R.J. (2001) Association between Obesity and Asthma in 4 - 11 Year Old Children in the UK. Thorax, 56, 133-137.

[11]   Bao, W., Srinivasan, S.R., Wattigney, W.A. and Berenson, G.S. (1994) Persistence of Multiple Cardiovascular Risk Clustering Related to Syndrome X from Childhood to Young Adulthood. The Bogalusa Heart Study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 154, 1842-1847.

[12]   Morrison, J.A., Friedman, L.A., Wang, P. and Glueck, C.J. (2008) Metabolic Syndrome in Childhood Predicts Adult Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 25 to 30 Years Later. Journal of Pediatrics, 152, 201-206.

[13]   Tsukada, H., Miura, K., Kido, T., Saeki, K., Kawashima, H., Ikawa, A., Nishi, M., Morikawa, Y., Nishijo, M., Nakanishi, Y., Yoshita, K. and Nakagnawa, H. (2003) Relationship of Childhood Obesity to Adult Obesity: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study from Birth in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi, 50, 1125-1134.

[14]   Yamamoto, M. and Kuzuhara, M. (2004) When Does Childhood Obesity Develop? ChiikiIryo, 42, 74-78.

[15]   Nakashima M. (2002) Discussion of Percent of Body Fat, Serum Lipid, Life Style in Childhood Obesity. Shimane Medical Association, 22, 225-229.

[16]   Haga, C., Aihara, M., Yamagata, Z. and Yamazaki, Y. (2012) Measures to Prevent Childhood Obesity by Community Health Nurses in Municipality in Yamanashi Prefecture. Hokenshi Journal, 68, 990-996.

[17]   Haga, C., Aihara, M. and Yamazaki, Y. (2011) A Study of Literature to Clarify the Status and Future Research Tasks of Obesity Prevention among Preschool Children in Japan. Japan Academy of Community Health Nursing, 13, 119-124.

[18]   Haga, C., Sakurai, M., Aihara, M. and Yamazaki, Y. (2012) Public Health Nurses’ Cognition and Attitudes towards the Prevention of Childhood Overweight and Obesity. Yamanashi Nursing Journal, 10, 1-6.

[19]   Yamanashi Planning Survey and Statistics Office (2010) Education Statistics Investigation Reports in Yamanashi Prefecture 2008.

[20]   Sato, N and Yoshiike, N. (2010) Factors Associated with the Masticatory Behavior of Children Assessed by the Number of Chews for a Test Meal of Usual School Lunch Menu. Japanese Journal of Nutrition Dietetics, 68, 253-262.

[21]   Kodama, H. (2011) Current Status and Treatment of Obesity and Lifestyle-Related Diseases in Children. Teikyo Medical Journal, 34, 219-226.

[22]   Matsuo, Y., Kodama, H., Ohno, R., Saruta, T., Atomi, H., Endoh, G. and Tabata, I. (2008) Lifestyle Disease Prevention since Pre- and Post-natal.

[23]   Freedman, M.R. and Alvarez, K.P. (2010) Early Childhood Feeding: Assessing Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Multi-Ethnic Child-Care Providers. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 110, 447-451.

[24]   Taveras, E.M., LaPelle, N., Gupta, R.S. and Finkelstein, J.A. (2006) Planning for Health Promotion in Low-Income Preschool Child Care Settings: Focus Groups of Parents and Child Care Providers. Ambulatory Pediatrics, 6, 342-346.

[25]   Kuboyama, S., Saito, Y., Nishimaki, K., Toushima, S., Fujii, S. and Takigawa, K. (2009) Survey on Awareness of and Response to “Children of Concern” and “Parents of Concern” by Preschool Teachers and Child-Care Providers: Considerations in Providing Organizational Support to Preschools and Child-Care Centers. Bulletin of the National Institute of Special Needs Education, 36, 55-76.

[26]   Kiuchi, T., Wang, L., Okada, A., Jono, H. and Ono, A. (2007) Research on Nursery Nurses’ Perception about Children’s Health and Practice for Health Management for Children. Gunma Paz College Journal, 2, 641-651.

[27]   Vaughn, S., Schumm, J.S. and Sinagub, J.M. (1999) Focus Group Interviews in Education and Psychology. Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks.

[28]   La Pelle, N. (2004) Simplifying Qualitative Data Analysis Using General Purpose Software Tools. Field Methods, 16, 85-108.

[29]   Kibayashi, E., Ueno, Y. and Nishitani, K. (2009) Comparative Studies on Dietary Habits of Preschool Children in Infant School and Nursery School. Sonoda Journal, 43, 85-101.

[30]   Rolland-Cachera, M.F., Deheeger, M., Bellisle, F., Semp, M., Guilloud-Bataille, M. and Patois, E. (1984) Adiposity Rebound in Children: A Simple Indicator for Predicting Obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 39, 129-135.

[31]   Dietz, W.H. (2000) “Adiposity Rebound”: Reality or Epiphenomenon? Lancet, 356, 2027-2028.

[32]   Shiraki, M., Omura, M. and Marui, E. (2008) Relationship between Unbalanced Diet and Living Environment in Infancy. Japanese Journal of Health & Human Ecology, 74, 279-289.

[33]   Hayashibe, H., Uchida, N., Kodera, H., Dobashi, K., Asayama, K. and Nakazawa, S. (2003) The Care for Childhood Obesity at Pediatric Outpatient Clinic. Japanese Journal of Pediatrics, 56, 2475-2481.

[34]   Pariízkovaá, J. and Hills, A.P. (2005) Childhood Obesity: Prevention and Treatment. 2nd Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton.

[35]   Mizutani, T., Suzuki, K., Kondo, N. and Yamagata, Z. (2007) Association of Maternal Lifestyles Including Smoking during Pregnancy with Childhood Obesity. Obesity, 15, 3133-3139.

[36]   Al Mamun, A., Lawlor, D.A., Cramb, S., O’Callaghan, M., Williams, G. and Najman, J. (2007) Do Childhood Sleeping Problems Predict Obesity in Young Adulthood? Evidence from a Prospective Birth Cohort Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 166, 1368-1373.

[37]   Arble, D.M., Bass, J., Laposky, A.D., Vitaterna, M.H. and Turek, F.W. (2009) Circadian Timing of Food Intake Contributes to Weight Gain. Obesity, 17, 2100-2102.

[38]   Man, M., Kinami, C. and Mikuni, M. (2011) Needs of Preschoolers’ Parents about Health Education for Preventing Obesity. Journal of School of Nursing and Social Services, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 7, 37-44.

[39]   Han, J.C., Lawlor, D.A. and Kimm, S.Y. (2010) Childhood Obesity. Lancet, 375, 1737-1748.

[40]   Bleich, S.N., Segal, J., Wu, Y., Wilson, R. and Wang, Y. (2013) Systematic Review of Community-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Studies. Pediatrics, 132, e201-e210.