Health  Vol.6 No.8 , March 2014
Study on the Link between Lead Exposure and Hematological, Psychological, and Memorial Parameters in Automobile Repair Workers
Abstract: In the surrounding environment, lead (Pb) can be released by repairing some parts of automobile engine and radiators repair works. Lead is very well-known as a neurotoxicant as some links exist between blood lead level (BLL) and neurological outcomes. This cross sectional study was performed on 35 male workers who were 23 - 40 and worked in an automobile repair shop located in an industrial part of Tehran. Clinical evidences were recorded by a questionnaire. Subjects had given their blood samples between 7 and 8 a.m. before going to work. The levels of hematological parameters were measured and the amount of lead in plasma samples was determined by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The Iranian versions of mood state and Wechsler memory questionnaire were applied in order to evaluate mood and memory impairment. The association between variables was studied using Pearson correlation coefficient. A positive correlation was seen between workers’ history on one side and, urinary frequency and restlessness on the other side. There was not any meaningful relationship between worker history, blood parameters, and mood state. A negative meaningful relationship existed between the workers’ history and visual memory. Also a positive significant relationship was observed between BLL and epigastric pain and there was a negative relationship between BLL and repeat number. There was not a significant relationship between BLL, blood parameters, and mood state as well. It was concluded that work practices in the automobile repair shop seemed to increase the body burden of lead and may pose a health risk to the workers.
Cite this paper: Fazli, D. , Malekirad, A. , Mirzaee, M. , Dastjerdi, H. , Mostafalou, S. , Karkhane, A. , Bayrami, Z. and Abdollahi, M. (2014) Study on the Link between Lead Exposure and Hematological, Psychological, and Memorial Parameters in Automobile Repair Workers. Health, 6, 712-719. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.68092.

[1]   Abdollahi, M., SadeghiMojarad, A. and Jalali, N. (1996) Lead Toxicity in Employees of a Paint Factory. Medical Journal, 10, 203-206.

[2]   Karrari, P., Mehrpour, O. and Abdollahi, M. (2012) A Systematic Review on Status of Lead Pollution and Toxicity in Iran; Guidance for Preventive Measures. Daru, 20, 2.

[3]   Kebriaeezadeh, A., Abdollahi, M., Sharifzadeh, M. and Mostaghasi, R. (1997) Lead Levels in the Inhabitants of Tehran City Districts. Pajouhandeh, 2, 67-72.

[4]   Staudinger, K.C. and Roth, V.S. (1998) Occupational Lead Poisoning. American Family Physician, 57, 719-726.

[5]   Chattopadhyay, O. (2007) Pulmonary Function in Automobile Repair Workers. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 32, 40-42.

[6]   Lanphear, B.P., Dietrich, K., Auinger, P. and Cox, C. (2000) Cognitive Deficits Associated with Blood Lead Concentrations <10 microg/dL in US Children and Adolescents. Public Health Reports, 115, 521-529.

[7]   Pawlas, N., Broberg, K., Olewińska, E., Prokopowicz, A., Skerfving, S. and Pawlas, K. (2012) Modification by the Genes ALAD and VDR of Lead-Induced Cognitive Effects in Children. Neurotoxicology, 33, 37-43.

[8]   Nicolescu, R., Petcu, C., Cordeanu, A., Fabritius, K., Schlumpf, M. and Krebs, R. (2010) Environmental Exposure to Lead, but Not Other Neurotoxic Metals, Relates to Core Elements of ADHD in Romanian Children: Performance and Questionnaire Data. Environmental Research, 110, 476-483.

[9]   Brockel, B.J. and Cory-Slechta, D.A. (1999) The Effects of Post Weaning Low-Level Pb Exposure on Sustained Attention: A Study of Target Densities, Stimulus Presentation Rate, and Stimulus Predictability. Neurotoxicology, 20, 921-933.

[10]   Téllez-Rojo, M.M., Bellinger, D.C., Arroyo-Quiroz, C., Lamadrid-Figueroa, H., Mercado-García, A. and Schnaas-Arrieta, L. (2006) Longitudinal Associations between Blood Lead Concentrations Lower than 10 microg/dL and Neuro-behavioral Development in Environmentally Exposed Children in Mexico City. Pediatrics, 118, e323-e330.

[11]   Guilarte, T.R., Opler, M. and Pletnikov, M. (2012) Is Lead Exposure in Early Life an Environmental Risk Factor for Schizophrenia? Neurobiological Connections and Testable Hypotheses. Neurotoxicology, 33, 560-574.

[12]   Basha, R. and Reddy, G.R. (2010) Developmental Exposure to Lead and Late Life Abnormalities of Nervous System. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 48, 636-641.

[13]   Fewtrell, L.J., Prüss-Ustün, A., Landrigan, P. and Ayuso-Mateos, J.L. (2004) Estimating the Global Burden of Disease of Mild Mental Retardation and Cardiovascular Diseases from Environmental Lead Exposure. Environmental Research, 94, 120-133.

[14]   VaezMosavi, S.M.K. and Samandar, Gh. (2002) Standardization of Profile of Mood States in Elite Sports. Olympic Journal, 4, 5-18

[15]   Orangi, M., Atefvahid, M. and Ashayeri, H. (2002) Standardization of the Revised Wechsler Memory Scale in Shiraz. IJPCP, 7, 56-66.

[16]   Suplido, M.L. and Ong, C.N. (2000) Lead exposure among small-scale battery recyclers, automobile radiator mechanics, and their children in Manila, the Philippines. Environmental Research, 82, 231-238.

[17]   Aguilar-Garduño, C., Lacasaña, M., Tellez-Rojo, M.M., Aguilar-Madrid, G., Sanin-Aguirre, L.H., Romieu, I. and Hernandez-Avila, M. (2003) Indirect Lead Exposure among Children of Radiator Repair Workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 43, 662-667.

[18]   Nunez, C.M., Klitzman, S. and Goodman, A. (1993) Lead Exposure among Auto-mobile Radiator Repair Workers and Their Children in New York City. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 23, 763-777.

[19]   Ahmad, T., Mumtaz, A., Ahmad, D. and Rashid, N. (2009) Lead Exposure in Children Living around the Automobile and Battery Repair Workshops. Biomedica, 25, 128-132.

[20]   Malekirad, A.A., Fani, A., Abdollahi, M., Oryan, S., Babapour, V., Shariatzade, S.M.A. and Davodi, M. (2011) Blood-Urine and Cognitive-Mental Parameters in Min Workers Exposed to Lead and Zinc. AMUJ, 13, 106-113.

[21]   Shannon, M.W., Borron, S.W and Burns, M.J. (2007) Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 4th Edition, Saunders Elsevier, Westline.

[22]   Zhang, W., Zhang, G.G., He, H.Z. and Bolt, H.M. (1994) Early Health Effects and Biological Monitoring in Persons Occupationally Exposed to Tetraethyl Lead. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 65, 395-299.

[23]   Canfield, R.L., Gendle, M.H. and Cory-Slechta, D.A. (2004) Impaired Neuropsy-chological Functioning in Lead-Exposed Children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 26, 513-540.

[24]   Nigg, J.T., Knottnerus, G.M., Martel, M.M., Nikolas, M., Cavanagh, K., Karmaus, W. and Rappley, M.D. (2008) Low Blood Lead Levels Associated with Clinically Diagnosed Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Mediated by Weak Cognitive Control. Biological Psychiatry, 63, 325.

[25]   Maizlish, N.A., Parra, G. and Feo, O. (1995) Neurobehavioural Evaluation of Venezuelan Workers Exposed to Inorganic Lead. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 52, 408-414.

[26]   Lindgren, K.N., Masten, V.L., Ford, D.P. and Bleecker, M.L. (1996) Relation of Cumulative Exposure to Inorganic Lead and Neuropsychological Test Performance. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 53, 472-477.

[27]   Malekirad, A.A., Oryan, S., Fani, A., Babapor, V., Hashemi, M., Baeeri, M., Bayrami, Z. and Abdollahi, M. (2010) Study on Clinical and Biochemical Toxicity Biomarkers in a Zinc-Lead Mine Workers. Toxicology and Industrial Health, 26, 331-337.

[28]   Winneke, G., Krämer, U., Brockhaus, A., Ewers, U., Kujanek, G. and Lechner, H. (1983) Neuropsychological Studies in Children with Elevated Tooth-Lead Concentrations. II. Extended Study. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 51, 231-252.

[29]   Lindgren, K.N., Masten, V.L., Ford, D.P. and Bleecker, M.L. (1996) Relation of Cumulative Exposure to Inorganic Lead and Neuropsychological Test Performance. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 53, 472-477.

[30]   El-Ansary, A.K., Bacha, A.B. and Ayahdi, L.Y. (2011) Relationship between Chronic Lead Toxicity and Plasma Neurotransmitters in Autistic Patients from Saudi Arabia. Clinical Biochemistry, 44, 1116-1120.

[31]   Mehrpour, O., Karrari, P. and Adbollahi, M. (2012) Chronic Lead Poisoning in Iran; a Silent Disease. Daru, 20, 8.

[32]   Pourmand, A., Al-Taie, T.K. and Amirshahi, M. (2012) Perspective on Lead Toxicity, a Comparison between the United States and Iran. Daru, 20, 70.