A Cosmological Model without Singularity Based on RW Metric (1)

Author(s)
Shihao Chen

ABSTRACT

A new conjecture is proposed that there are two sorts of matter called s-matter and v-matter which are symmetric, whose masses are positive, but whose gravitational masses are opposite to each other. Based on the conjecture and the*SU*_{S}(5) × *SU*_{V}(5) gauge group, a cosmological model has been constructed and the following inferences have been derived. There are two sorts of symmetry breaking called *V*-*breaking* and *S*-*breaking*. In the*V*-*breaking*, *SU*_{V}(5) breaks finally to *SU*_{V}(3) × *U*_{V}(1) so that *v-particles* get their masses and form *v-atoms* and*v-galaxies* etc., while *SU*_{S}(5) still holds so that *s-fermions* and *s-gauge* bosons are massless and form *SU*_{S}(5)color-singlets. There is no interaction among the *SU*_{S}(5) color-singlets except gravitation so that they distribute loosely in space, cannot be observed, and cause space to expand with an acceleration. Evolution of the universe is explained. There is no space-time singularity. There are the highest temperature and the least scale in the universe. It is impossible that the Plank temperature and length are arrived. A formula is obtained which describes the relation between a luminous distance and its redshift. A huge void is not empty, and is equivalent to a huge concave lens. The densities of hydrogen in the huge voids must be much less than that predicted by the conventional theory. The gravitation between two galaxies whose distance is long enough will be less than that predicted by the conventional theory. A black hole with its big enough mass will transform into a white hole.

A new conjecture is proposed that there are two sorts of matter called s-matter and v-matter which are symmetric, whose masses are positive, but whose gravitational masses are opposite to each other. Based on the conjecture and the

Cite this paper

Chen, S. (2014) A Cosmological Model without Singularity Based on RW Metric (1).*International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics*, **4**, 264-293. doi: 10.4236/ijaa.2014.41023.

Chen, S. (2014) A Cosmological Model without Singularity Based on RW Metric (1).

References

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[2] Brandenberger, R., Mukhanov, V. and Sornborger, A. (1993) Cosmological Theory without Singularities. Physical Review D, 48, 1629-1642. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.48.1629

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[13] Chen, S.H. (2002) Quantum Field Theory without Divergence A. arXiv: hep-th/0203220.

[14] Chen, S.H. (2002) Significance of Negative Energy State in Quantum Field Theory A. arXiv: hep-th/0203230.

[15] Chen, S.H. (2005) Quantum Field Theory without Divergence. In: Kovras, O., Ed., Quantum Field Theory: New Research, Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, 103-170.

[16] Chen, S.H. (2001) A Possible Candidate for Dark Matter. arXiv: hep-th/0103234.

[17] Chen, S.H. (2005) A Possible Candidate for Dark Matter. In: Val Blain, J., Progress in Dark Matter Research, Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, 65-72.

[18] Peacock, J.A. (1999) Cosmological Physics. Cambridge University Press, 78, 89, 90, 296, 458, 460-464, 579, 664.

[19] Chen, S.-H. (2009) Discussion of a Possible Universal Model without Singularity. arXiv: 0908.1495v2.

[20] Chen, S.-H. (2006) A Possible Universal Model without Singularity and its Explanation for Evolution of the Universe. High Energy Physics—Phenomenology, arXiv:hep-ph/0611283.

[21] Gibbons, G.W. and Hawking, S.W. (1977) Action Integrals and Partition Functions in Quantum Gravity. Physical Review D, 15, 2752. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.15.2752

[22] Chaichian, M. and Nelipa, N.F. (1984) Introduction to Gauge Field Theories. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 269.

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[25] Coleman, S. and Weiberg, E.J. (1973) Radiative Corrections as the Origin of Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking. Physical Review D, 7, 1888-1910. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.7.1888

[26] Brandenberg, R.H. (1985) Quantum Field Theory Methods and Inflationary Universe Models. Reviews of Modern Physics, 57, 1-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.57.1

[27] Liu, L., Jiang, Y. and Qian, Z. (1989) The Inflationary Universe Scenario in 10?35 Sec after Big-Bang. Progress in Physics, 9, 121-187. (in Chinese)

[28] Guth, A.H. (1981) Inflationary Universe: A Possible Solution to the Horizon and Flatness Problems. Physical Review D, 23, 347-356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.23.347.53

[1] Hawking, S.W. and Ellis, G.F.R. (1999) The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time, Cambridge University Press, 7, 98, 101, 137, 256-298.

[2] Brandenberger, R., Mukhanov, V. and Sornborger, A. (1993) Cosmological Theory without Singularities. Physical Review D, 48, 1629-1642. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.48.1629

[3] Frolov, V.P, Markov M.A. and Mukhanov V.F. (1990) Black Holes as Possible Sources of Closed and Semiclosed Worlds. Physical Review D, 41, 383-394. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.41.383

[4] Caldwell, R.R. (2004) Dark Energy. Physics World, 17, 37-42.

[5] Padmanabhan, T. (2003) Cosmological Constant—The Weight of the Vacuum. Physics Reports, 380, 235-320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0370-1573(03)00120-0

[6] Peebles P.J.E. and Ratra, B. (2003) The Cosmological Constant and Dark Energy. Reviews of Modern Physics, 75, 559. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.75.559

[7] Weinberg, S. (1987) Anthropic Bound on the Cosmological Constant. Physical Review Letters, 59, 2607-2610. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.59.2607

[8] Martel, H., Shapiro, P.R. and Weinberg, S. (1998) Likely Values of the Cosmological Constant. The Astrophysical Journal, 492, 29-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/305016

[9] Peebles, P.J.E. and Ratra, B. (1988) Cosmology with a Time-Variable Cosmological “Constant”. The Astrophysical Journal, 325, L17-L20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/185100

[10] Ratra, B. and Peebles, P.J.E. (1988) Cosmological Consequences of a Rolling Homogeneous Scalar Field. Physical Review D, 37, 3406; http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.37.3406

[11] Peebles, P.J.E. and Ratra, B. (2003) The Cosmological Constant and Dark Energy. Reviews of Modern Physics, 75, 559. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.75.559

[12] Hall, L.J. Nomura Y. and Oliver, S.J., (2005) Evolving Dark Energy with w≠-1. Physical Review Letters, 95, 14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.141302

[13] Chen, S.H. (2002) Quantum Field Theory without Divergence A. arXiv: hep-th/0203220.

[14] Chen, S.H. (2002) Significance of Negative Energy State in Quantum Field Theory A. arXiv: hep-th/0203230.

[15] Chen, S.H. (2005) Quantum Field Theory without Divergence. In: Kovras, O., Ed., Quantum Field Theory: New Research, Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, 103-170.

[16] Chen, S.H. (2001) A Possible Candidate for Dark Matter. arXiv: hep-th/0103234.

[17] Chen, S.H. (2005) A Possible Candidate for Dark Matter. In: Val Blain, J., Progress in Dark Matter Research, Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, 65-72.

[18] Peacock, J.A. (1999) Cosmological Physics. Cambridge University Press, 78, 89, 90, 296, 458, 460-464, 579, 664.

[19] Chen, S.-H. (2009) Discussion of a Possible Universal Model without Singularity. arXiv: 0908.1495v2.

[20] Chen, S.-H. (2006) A Possible Universal Model without Singularity and its Explanation for Evolution of the Universe. High Energy Physics—Phenomenology, arXiv:hep-ph/0611283.

[21] Gibbons, G.W. and Hawking, S.W. (1977) Action Integrals and Partition Functions in Quantum Gravity. Physical Review D, 15, 2752. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.15.2752

[22] Chaichian, M. and Nelipa, N.F. (1984) Introduction to Gauge Field Theories. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 269.

[23] Ross, G.G. (1984) Grand Unified Theories. Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc., 177-183.

[24] Weinberg, S. (1972) Gravitation and Cosmology. Wiley, New York, Chapter 12, Section 3.

[25] Coleman, S. and Weiberg, E.J. (1973) Radiative Corrections as the Origin of Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking. Physical Review D, 7, 1888-1910. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.7.1888

[26] Brandenberg, R.H. (1985) Quantum Field Theory Methods and Inflationary Universe Models. Reviews of Modern Physics, 57, 1-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.57.1

[27] Liu, L., Jiang, Y. and Qian, Z. (1989) The Inflationary Universe Scenario in 10?35 Sec after Big-Bang. Progress in Physics, 9, 121-187. (in Chinese)

[28] Guth, A.H. (1981) Inflationary Universe: A Possible Solution to the Horizon and Flatness Problems. Physical Review D, 23, 347-356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.23.347.53