JBiSE  Vol.7 No.4 , March 2014
A Contact Model for Establishment of Hip Joint Implant Wear Metrics
Abstract: Wear is an important issue in hip implants. Excessive wear can lead to toxicity and other implant associated medical issues such as patient discomfort and decreased mobility. Since implant wear is the result of contact between surfaces of femoral head and acetabulum implant, it is important to establish a model that can address implant surface roughness interaction. A statistical contact model is developed for the interaction of femoral head and acetabulum implant in which surface roughness effects are included. The model accounts for the elastic-plastic interaction of the implant surface roughness. For this purpose femoral head and acetabulum implants are considered as macroscopically spherical surfaces containing micron-scale roughness. Approximate equations are obtained that relate the contact force to the mean surface separation explicitly. Closed form equations are obtained for hysteretic energy loss in implant using the approximate equations.
Cite this paper: Hodaei, M. , Farhang, K. and Maani, N. (2014) A Contact Model for Establishment of Hip Joint Implant Wear Metrics. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 7, 228-242. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2014.74026.

[1]   Hodge, W.A., Fijan, R.S., Carlson, K.L., Burgess, R.G., Harris, W.H. and Mann, R.W. (1986) Contact Pressures in the Human Hip Joint Measured in Vivo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 83, 2879-2883.

[2]   Bergmann, G., Deuretzbacher, G., Heller, M., Graichen, F., Rohlmann, A., Strauss, J. and Duda, G.N. (2001) Hip Contact Forces and Gait Patterns from Routine Activities. Journal of Biomechanics, 34, 859-871.

[3]   Bergmann, G. (1998) Data Collection of Hip Joint Loading on CD-Rom. Free University and Humboldt University, Berlin.

[4]   Pramanik, S., Agarwal, A.K. and Rai, K.N. (2005) Chronology of Total Hip Joint Replacement and Materials Development. Trends in Biomaterials & Artificial Organs, 19, 15-26.

[5]   Charbonnier, C., Schmid, J., Kolo-Christophe, F., Magnenat-Thalmann, N., Becker, C., and Hoffmeyer, P. 2009, “Virtual Hip Joint: from Computer Graphics to Computer-Assisted Diagnosis”, Eurographics,.

[6]   Montecucchi, P.C. (2002) Total Anatomic Hip Prosthesis. Montegen, 540 Beverly Court, Suite1-Tallahassee FL 32301 USA, Via G. Dezza n. 24 - 20144 Milan, Italy.

[7]   Mc Laurin, C.A. (1954) Hip Disarticulation Prosthesis. Report 15, Prosthetic Services Centre, Department of Veterans Affairs, Toronto.

[8]   Richards, S. and Richards, N. (1994) Artificial Hip Joints. Applying Weapons Expertise to Medical Technology, E&TR.

[9]   Klein, M. (2005) Using Data in Making Orthopedic Imaging Diagnoses. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 44, 104-111.

[10]   Yusoff, S.F. (2009) Knee Joint Replacement Automation Templates. Thesis, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi.

[11]   Arora, J., Sharma, S. and Blyth, M. (2005) The Role of Pre-Operative Templating in Primary Total Knee Replacement. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, 13, 187-189.

[12]   Kosashvili, Y., Shasha, N., Olschewski, E., Safir, O., White, L., Gross A. and Backstein, D. (2005) Digital Versus Conventional Templating Techniques in Preoperative Planning for Total Hip Arthroplasty. Canadian Journal of Surgery, 52, 6-11.

[13]   Shapi, A., Sulaiman, R., Hasan, M.K. and Kassim, A.Y.M. (2011) An Automated Size Recognition Teqnique for Acetabular Implant in Total Hip Replacement. International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT), 3, 2.

[14]   Hiroyuki, M., Takayoshi, H., Yoshitake, U., Shuji, U., Nobuyoshi, T. and Osamu, N. (2010) Evaluation of RF Heating on Hip Joint Implant in Phantom during MRI Examinations. Japanese Journal of Radiological Technology, 66, 25-733.

[15]   Zhang, W., Titze, M., Cappi, B. and Writz, D.C. (2010) Improved Mechanical Long-Permrealiability of Hip Resurfacing Prostheses by Using Silicon Nitride. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 21, 3049-3057.

[16]   Scifert, C.F., Brown, T.D. and Lipman, J.D. (1999) Finite Element Analysis of a Novel Design Approach to Resisting Total Hip Dislocation. Clinical Biomechanics, 14, 697-703.

[17]   Phillps, A.T.M., Pankaj, P., Howie, C.R., Usmani, A.S. and Simpson, A.H.R.W. (2006) 3D Non-Linear Analysis of the Acetabular Construct Following Impaction Grafting. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 9, 125-133.

[18]   Jonathon, R., Campbell, P. and Mathew, P.E. (2013) Metal Release from Hip Prostheses: Cobaltand Chromium Toxicity and the Role of the Clinical Laboratory. Clinical Chemistry & Laboratory Medicine, 51, 213-220.

[19]   Steens, W., Foerster, G.V. and Katzer, A. (2006) Severe Cobalt Poisoning with Loss of Sight after Ceramicmetal Pairing in a Hip”—A Case Report. Acta Orthopaedica, 77, 830-832.

[20]   Tower, S.S. (2012) Arthroprosthetic Cobaltism Associated with Metal on Metal Hip Implants. BMJ, 344-430.

[21]   Alan, M.K. and Swarts, E. (2009) Corrosion of a Hip Stem with a Modular Neck Taper Junction: A Retrieval Study of 16 Cases. The Journal of Arthroplasty, 24, 19-23.

[22]   Brodner, W., Bitzan, P., Meisinger, V. and Kaider, A. (1997) Elevated Serum Cobalt with Metal-on-Metal Articulating Surfaces. The Journal of Bone and Surgery, 79-B, 316-321.

[23]   Senapati, S.K. and Pal, S. (2002) Uhmwpe-Alumina Ceramic Composite, an Improved Prosthesis Materials for an Artificial Cementted Hip Joint. Trends in Biomaterials & Artificial Organs, 16, 5-7.

[24]   Colombi, P. (2002) Fatigue Analysis of Cemented Hip Prosthesis: Damage Accumulation Scenario and Sensitivity Analysis. International Journal of Fatigue, 24,739-746.

[25]   Lennon, A.B. and Prendergast, P.J. (2002) Residual Stress Due to Curing Can Initiate Damage in Porous Bone Cement: Experimental and Theoretical Evidence. Journal of Biomechanics, 35, 311-321.

[26]   Zimmerman, S., Hawkes, W.G., Hudson, J.I., Magaziner, J., Hebel, J.R., Towheed, T., Gardner, J., Provenzano, G. and Kenzora, J.E. (2002) Outcomes of Surgical Management of Total Hip Replacement in Patients Aged 65 Years and Older: Cemented versus Cementless Femoral Components and Lateral or Anterolateral versus Posterior Anatomical Approach. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 20, 182-191.

[27]   Stolk, J., Maher, S.A., Verdonschot, N., Prendergast, P.J. and Huiskes, R. (2003) Can Finite Element Models Detect Clinically Inferior Cemented Hip Implants? Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 409, 138-150.

[28]   Waide, V., Cristofolini, L. and Toni, A. (2004) An Experimental Analogue to Model the Fibrous Tissue Layer in Cemented Hip Replacements. Journal of Biomechanical Materials Research (Part B Applied Biomaterials), 64B, 232-240.

[29]   Li, C., Granger, C., Schutte Jr., H.D., Biggers Jr., S.B., Kennedy, J.M. and Latour Jr., A.R. (2003) Failure Analysis of Composite Femoral Components for Hip Arthroplasty. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 40, 131-146.

[30]   Kowalczyk, P. (2001) Design Optimization of Cementless Femoral Hip Prostheses Using Finite Element Analysis. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 123, 396-402.

[31]   Stolk, J., Verdonschot, N., Cristofolini, L., Toni, A. and Huiskes, R. (2002) Finite Element and Experimental Models of Cemented Hip Joint Reconstructions Can Produce Similar Bone and Cement Strains in Pre-Clinical Tests. Journal of Biomechanics, 35, 499-510.

[32]   Ni, G.X., Lu, W.W., Chiu, K.Y. and Fong, D.Y. (2005) Cemented or Uncemented Femoral Component in Primary Total Hip Replacement? A Review from a Clinical and Radiological Perspective. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery, 13, 96-105.

[33]   Prendergast, P.J. (1997) Review Paper—Finite Element Models in Tissue Mechanics and Orthopaedic Implant Design. Clinical Biomechanics, 12, 343-366.

[34]   Phillipsab, A.T.M., Pankajb, P., Howiec, C.R., Usmanib, A.S. and Simpsonac, A.H.R.W. (2006) 3D Non-Linear Analysis of the Acetabular Construct Following Impaction Grafting. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 3, 125-133.

[35]   Stansfield, B.W. (2003) Direct Comparison of Calculated Hip Joint Contact Forces with Those Measured Using Instrumented Implants. An Evaluation of a Three-Dimensional Mathematical Model of the Lower Limb. Journal of Biomechanics, 36, 929-936.

[36]   Kaddick, C., Stur, S. and Hipp, E. (1997) Mechanical Simulation of Composite Hip Stems. Medical Engineering & Physics, 19, 431-439.

[37]   Hurwitz, D.E., Foucher, K.C. and Andriacchi, T.P. (2003) A New Parametric Approach for Modeling Hip Forces During Gait. Journal of Biomechanics, 36, 113-119.

[38]   Sepehri, A. and Farhang, K. (2007) An Extension of CEB Elastic-Plastic Contact Model. Proceedings of the STLE/ ASME International Joint Tribology Conference, San Diego, 22-24 October 2007, 597-599.

[39]   Greenwood, J.A. and Williamsom, J.B.P. (1966) Contact of Nominally Flat Surfaces. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 295, 300-319.

[40]   Chang, W.R., Etsion, I. and Bogy, D.B. (1987) An Elastic-Plastic Model for the Contact of Rough Surfaces. Journal of Tribology, 109, 257-263.