ENG  Vol.6 No.4 , March 2014
Automatic Detection of the Electrical Elicited Stapedius Reflex by Evaluation of Its Electromyographic Signals
Abstract: This paper provides a first preliminary description of the dependencies between the stapedius muscle’s behavior and its neuronal activation with the adjustment of cochlear implants in mind. For that, stapedial electromyography (EMG) data are compared with EMG data which were derived from the quadriceps femoris muscle. The rationale behind is, that the stapedius muscle is classified as a striated skeletal muscle as the quadriceps femoris muscle is. Thus, the stapedius should expose a behavior which is similar to that of peripheral skeletal muscles. The stapedial reactions were provoked with contralateral acoustic stimulation and ipsilateral electrical stimulation, respectively. The data from the quadriceps femoris muscle were evoked voluntarily. The correlation of the derived data and their stimuli have shown the following main key points: 1) The stapedius muscle behaves like a regular skeletal muscle; 2) The stapedius muscle exhibits an extended range in which the muscle’s force is linear to the stimulation; 3) On both sides of the linear regime, the stapedius muscle exhibits a sigmoidal behavior.
Cite this paper: Warmuth, R. , Behrens, M. , Behrens, M. , Dahl, R. , Ehrt, K. , Pau, H. and Salomon, R. (2014) Automatic Detection of the Electrical Elicited Stapedius Reflex by Evaluation of Its Electromyographic Signals. Engineering, 6, 169-176. doi: 10.4236/eng.2014.64020.

[1]   Niemeyer, W. (1971) Relations between the Discomfort Level and the Reflex Threshold of the Middle Ear Muscles. International Journal of Audiology, 10, 172-176.

[2]   Chiveralls, K. and Fitzsimons, R. (1973) Stapedial Reflex Action in Normal Subjects. British Journal of Audiology, 7, 105-110.

[3]   Niemeyer, W. and Sesterhenn, G. (1974) Calculating the Hearing Threshold from the Stapedius Reflex Threshold for Different Sound Stimuli. International Journal of Audiology, 13, 421-427.

[4]   Hodges, A., Balkany, T., Ruth, R., Lambert, P., Dolanash, S. and Schloffman, J. (1997) Electrical Middle Ear Muscle Reflex: Use in Cochlear Implant Programming. Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, 117, 255-261.

[5]   Zehnder, A., Allum, J.H.J., Honegger, F. and Probst, R. (1999) Bedeutung der Intraoperativ Registrierten Elektrischen Stapediusreflexschwelle für die Cochlear-Implant-Anpassung bei Kindern. HNO, 47, 970-975.

[6]   Bresnihan, M., Norman, G., Scott, F. and Viani, L. (2001) Measurement of Comfort Levels by Means of Electrical Stapedial Reflex in Children. Archives of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery, 127, 963-966.

[7]   Staudenmann, D., Roeleveld, K., Stegeman, D. F. and Van Dieen, J. H. (2010) Methodological Aspects of SEMG Recordings for Force Estimation—A Tutorial and Review. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 20, 375-387.

[8]   De Luca, C.J. (1997) The Use of Surface Electromyography in Biomechanics. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 13, 135-163.

[9]   Alkner, B.A., Tesch, P.A. and Berg, H.E. (2000) Quadriceps EMG/Force Relationship in Knee Extension and Leg Press. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32, 459-463.

[10]   Pau, H.W., Zehlicke, T., Sievert, U., Schaudel, D., Behrend, D. and Dahl, R. (2009) Electromyographical Recording of the Electrically Elicited Stapedius Reflex via a Bipolar Hook Electrode. Otology & Neurotology, 30, 1-6.

[11]   Fukuda, T.Y. and Echeimberg, J.O. (2010) Mean Square Value of the Electromyographic Signal in the Isometric Torque of the Quadriceps. Hamstrings and Brachial Biceps Muscles in Female Subjects. The Journal of Applied Research, 10, 32-39.

[12]   Fisch, U. and Schulthess, G. (1963) Electromyographic Studies on the Human Stapedial Muscle. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 56, 287-297.

[13]   Zakrisson, J.E., Borg, E. and Blom, S. (1974) The Acoustic Impedance Change as a Measure of Stapedius Muscle Activity in Man. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 78, 357-364.

[14]   Levy, M., Mizrahi, J. and Susak, Z. (1990) Recruitment, Force and Fatigue Characteristics of Quadriceps Muscles of Paraplegics Isometrically Activated by Surface Functional Electrical Stimulation. Journal of Biomedical Engineering, 12, 150-156.