AJPS  Vol.5 No.5 , March 2014
Interactive Effects of Elevated [CO2] and Soil Water Stress on Leaf Morphological and Anatomical Characteristic of Paper Birch Populations
Abstract: The leaf morphological and stomatal characteristics of four paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh) populations, grown at four treatment conditions of carbon dioxide [CO2] and soil water levels were investigated to determine whether future increases in atmospheric [CO2] and water deficit affected the leaf characteristics. The populations from Cussion Lake, Little Oliver, Skimikin and Wayerton were grown for 12 weeks under ambient (360 ppm) and elevated (720 ppm) [CO2] at both high and low water levels. The populations significantly differed in leaf area and stomatal characteristics due to the interaction effects of [CO2], water levels and population differences. Most leaf morphological characteristics and stomatal density varied due to the effects of [CO2] and/or populations, but not due to the effect of water levels. Although elevated [CO2] alone barely affected stomatal area of the birch populations, simultaneous elevated [CO2] at both water levels had stimulated stomatal characteristics within and among the populations. Overall, elevated [CO2] reduced leaf area and increased stomatal density; and low water level resulted in smaller stomatal area, pore area and guard cell width. However, the populations responded differently to an increase in [CO2] and water levels. All populations showed plastic responses with respect to [CO2] and water levels either by decreasing stomatal area under low water level or by increasing stomatal density under elevated [CO2]. Hence, integration between and within leaf characteristics had helped paper birch populations maintain balance between [CO2] gain and water loss.
Cite this paper: Pyakurel, A. and Wang, J. (2014) Interactive Effects of Elevated [CO2] and Soil Water Stress on Leaf Morphological and Anatomical Characteristic of Paper Birch Populations. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 691-703. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.55084.

[1]   Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change-IPCC (2007) Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. In: Solomon S., Qin D. and Manning M., Eds., Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

[2]   Sitch, S., Huntingford, C., Gedney, N., Levy, P. E., Lomas, M., Piao, S.L., Betts, R., Ciais, P., Cox P., Friedlingstein, P., Jones, C.D., Prentice, I.C. and Woodward, F.I. (2008) Evaluation of the Terrestrial Carbon Cycle, Future Plant Geography and Climate-Carbon Cycle Feedbacks Using Five Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs). Global Change Biology, 14, 2015-2039.

[3]   Houghton, J.T., Ding, Y., Griggs, D.J., Noguer, M., van der Linden, P.J., Dai, X., Maskell, K. and Johnson, C.A. (2001) Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

[4]   Catovsky, S. and Bazzaz, F.A. (1999) Elevated CO2 Influences the Responses of Two Birch Species to Soil Moisture: Implications for Forest Community Structure. Global Change Biology, 5, 507-518.

[5]   Volk, M., Niklaus, P.A. and Korner, C. (2000) Soil Moisture Effects Determine CO2 Responses of Grassland Species. Oecologia, 125, 380-388.

[6]   Korner, C. (2003) Ecological Impacts of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on Terrestrial Ecosystems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 361, 2023-2041.

[7]   Ferris, R., Sabatti, M., Miglietta, F., Mills, R.F. and Taylor, G. (2001) Leaf Area is Stimulated in Populus by Free Air CO2 Enrichment (POPFACE), through Increased Cell Expansion and Production. Plant, Cell & Environment, 24, 305-315.

[8]   Hetherington, A.M. and Woodward, F.I. (2003) The Role of Stomata in Sensing and Driving Environmental Change. Nature, 424, 901-908.

[9]   Pritchard, S.G., Rogers, H.H., Prior, S.A. and Peterson, C.M. (1999) Elevated CO2 and Plant Structure: A Review. Global Change Biology, 5, 807-837. doi/10.1046/j.1365-2486.1999.00268.x

[10]   McLellan, T. (2000) Geographic Variation and Plasticity of Leaf Shape and Size in Begonia dregei and B. homonyma (Begoniaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 132, 79-95.

[11]   Heath, J. and Kerstiens, G. (1997) Effects of Elevated CO2 on Leaf Gas Exchange in Beech and Oak at Two Levels of Nutrient Supply: Consequences for Sensitivity to Drought in Beech. Plant, Cell & Environment, 20, 57-67.

[12]   Kerstiens, G., Townend, J., Heath, J. and Mansfield, T.A. (1995) Effects of Water and Nutrient Availability on Physiological Responses of Woody Species to Elevated CO2. Forestry, 68, 303-315.

[13]   Norby, R.J. and O’Neill, E.G. (1991) Leaf Area Compensation and Nutrient Interactions in CO2-Enriched Seedlings of Yellow-Poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). New Phytologist, 117, 515-28.

[14]   Meng, T.T., Ni, J. and Harrison, S.P. (2009) Plant Morphometric Traits and Climate Gradients in Northern China: A Meta-Analysis Using Quadrat and Flora Data. Annals of Botany, 104, 1217-1229.

[15]   Mediavilla, S., Escudero, A. and Heilmeier, H. (2001) Internal Leaf Anatomy and Photosynthetic Resource-Use Efficiency: Interspecific and Intraspecific Comparisons. Tree Physiology, 21, 251-259.

[16]   Abrams, M.D. (1999) Adaptations and Responses to Drought in Quercus Species of North America. Tree Physiology, 7, 227-238.

[17]   Bruschi, P., Vendramin, G.G., Bussotti, F. and Grossoni, P. (2000) Morphological and Molecular Differentiation between Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. and Quercus pubescens Wild. (Fagaceae) in Northern and Central Italy. Annals of Botany, 85, 325-333.

[18]   de Lillis, M. (1991) An Ecomorphological Study of the Evergreen Leaf. Braun, Blanquetia.

[19]   Norby, R.J., Wullschleger, S.D., Gunderson, C.A. and Nietch, C.T. (1995) Increased Growth Efficiency of Quercus alba Trees in a CO2-Enriched Atmosphere. New Phytologist, 131, 91-97.

[20]   Sims, D.A., Seemann, J.R. and Luo, Y. (1998) Elevated CO2 Concentration Has Independent Effects on Expansion Rates and Thickness of Soybean Leaves across Light and Nitrogen Gradients. Journal of Experimental Botany, 49, 583-591.

[21]   Li, W.L., Berlyn, G.P. and Ashton, P.M.S. (1996) Polyploids and Their Structural and Physiological Characteristics Relative To Water Deficit in Betula papyrifera (Betulaceae). American Journal of Botany, 83, 15-20.

[22]   Pettersson, R., McDonald, A.J.S. and Stadenberg, I. (1993) Response of Small Birch Plants (Betula pendula Roth.) to Elevated CO2 and Nitrogen Supply. Plant, Cell & Environment, 16, 1115-1121.

[23]   Beerling, D.J., Heath, J., Woodward, F.I. and Mansfield, T.A. (1996) Drought-CO2 Interactions in Trees: Observations and Mechanisms. New Phytologist, 134, 235-242.

[24]   Woodward, F.I. and Kelly, C.K. (1995) The Influence of CO2 Concentration on Stomatal Density. New Phytologist, 131, 311-327.

[25]   Lin, J., Jach, M.E. and Ceulemans, R. (2001) Stomatal Density and Needle Anatomy of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) Are Affected By Elevated CO2. New Phytologist, 150, 665-674.

[26]   Xiao, C.W., Sun, O.J., Zhou, G.S., Zhao, J.Z. and Wu, G. (2005) Interactive Effects of Elevated CO2 and Drought Stress on Leaf Water Potential and Growth in Caragana intermedia. Trees, 19, 712-721.

[27]   Paoletti, E., Nourrisson, G., Garrec, J.P. and Raschi, A. (1998) Modifications of the Leaf Surface Structures of Quercus ilex L. in Open, Naturally CO2-Enriched Environments. Plant, Cell & Environment, 21, 1071-1075.

[28]   Dancik, B.P. and Barnes, B.V. (1974) Leaf Diversity in Yellow Birch (Betula alleghaniensis). Canadian Journal of Botany, 52, 2407-2414.

[29]   Pyakurel, A. and Wang, J.R. (2013) Leaf Morphological Variation among Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) Genotypes across Canada. Open Journal of Ecology, 3, 284-295.

[30]   Senn, J., Hanhimaki, S. and Haukioja, E. (1992) Among-Tree Variation in Leaf Phenology and Morphology and Its Correlation with Insect Performance in the Mountain Birch. Oikos, 63, 215-222.

[31]   Sharik, T.L. and Barnes, B.V. (1979) Natural Variation in Morphology among Diverse Populations of Yellow Birch (Betula alleghaniensis) and Sweet Birch (B. lenta). Canadian Journal of Botany, 57, 1932-1939.

[32]   Safford, L., Bjorkbom, J.C. and Zasada, J.C. (1990) Betula papyrifera Marsh. Paper Birch. Forest Services, Washington DC.

[33]   Tschaplinski, T.J. and Norby, R.J. (1991) Physiological Indicators of Nitrogen Response in a Short Rotation Sycamore Plantation.I.CO2 Assimilation, Photosynthetic Pigments and Soluble Carbohydrates. Physiologia Plantarum, 82, 117-126.

[34]   Tschaplinski, T.J., Stewart, D.B., Hanson, P.J. and Norby, R.J. (1995) Interactions between Drought and Elevated CO2 on Growth and Gas Exchange of Seedlings of Three Deciduous Tree Species. New Phytologist, 129, 63-71.

[35]   Bacelar, E.A., Correia, C.M., Moutinho-Pereira, J.M., Gonazalves, B.C., Lopes, J.I. and Torres-Pereira, J.M.G. (2004) Sclerophylly and Leaf Anatomical Traits of Five Field-Grown Olive Cultivars Growing under Drought Conditions. Tree Physiology, 24, 233-239.

[36]   Xu, Z. and Zhou, G. (2008) Responses of Leaf Stomatal Density to Water Status and Its Relationship with Photosynthesis in a Grass. Journal of Experimental Botany, 59, 3317-3325.

[37]   Batos, B., Vilotic, D., Orlovic, S. and Miljkovic, D. (2010) Inter and Intra-Population Variation of Leaf Stomatal Traits of Quercus robur L. in Northern Serbia. Archives of Biological Sciences, Belgrade, 62, 1125-1136.

[38]   Sagaram, M., Lombardini, L. and Grauke, L.J. (2007) Variation in Leaf Anatomy of Pecan Cultivars from Three Ecogeographic Locations. Journal of American Society of Horticultural Science, 132, 592-596.

[39]   Teklehaimanot, Z., Lanek, J. and Tomlinson, H.F. (1998) Provenance Variation in Morphology and Leaflet Anatomy of Parkia biglobosa and Its Relation to Drought Tolerance. Trees, 13, 96-102.

[40]   Mousseau, M. and Enoch, H.Z. (1989) Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Reduces Shoot Growth in Sweet Chestnut Seedlings (Castanea sativa Mill.). Plant, Cell & Environment, 12, 927-934.

[41]   Radoglou, K.M. and Jarvis, P.G. (1992) The Effects of CO2 Enrichment and Nutrient Supply on Growth Morphology and Anatomy of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Seedlings. Annals of Botany, 70, 245-256.

[42]   Radoglou, K.M. and Jarvis, P.G. (1990) Effects of CO2 Enrichment on Four Poplar Clones. I. Growth and Leaf Anatomy. Annals of Botany, 65, 617-626.

[43]   Gielen, B., Calfapietra, C., Sabatti, M. and Ceulemans, R. (2001) Leaf Area Dynamics in a Closed Poplar Plantation under Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment. Tree Physiology, 21, 1245-1255.

[44]   Mansfield, T.A., Hetherington, A.M. and Atkinson, C.J. (1990) Some Current Aspects of Stomatal Physiology. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 41, 55-75.

[45]   Woodward, F.I. (1987) Stomatal Numbers Are Sensitive to Increases in CO2 from Pre-Industrial Levels. Nature, 327, 617-618.

[46]   Knapp, A.K., Cocke, M., Hamerlynck, E.P. and Owensby, C.E. (1994) Effect of Elevated CO2 on Stomatal Density and Distribution in a C4 Grass and a C3 Forb under Field Conditions. Annals of Botany, 74, 595-599.

[47]   Woodward, F.I., Lake, J.A. and Quick, W.P. (2002) Stomatal Development and CO2: Ecological Consequences. New Phytologist, 153, 477-484.

[48]   Banon, S., Fernandez, J.A., Franco, J.A., Torrecillas, A., Alarcon, J.J. and Sanchez-Blanco, M.J. (2004) Effects of Water Stress and Night Temperature Preconditioning on Water Relations and Morphological and Anatomical Changes of Lotus creticus Plants. Scientia Horticulturae, 101, 333-342.

[49]   Pyakurel, A. and Wang, J. (Unpublished) Leaf Morphological and Stomatal Variations in Paper Birch Populations across Canada. Ph.D. Dissertation, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay.

[50]   Malone, S.R., Mayeux, H.S., Johnson, H.B. and Polley, H.W. (1993) Stomatal Density and Aperture Length in Four Plant Species Grown across a Sub-Ambient CO2 Gradient. American Journal of Botany, 80, 1413-1418.

[51]   Tricker, P.J., Trewin, H., Kull, O., Clarkson, G.J., Eensalu, E., Tallis, M.J., Colella, A., Doncaster, C.P., Sabatti, M. and Taylor, G. (2005) Stomatal Conductance and not Stomatal Density Determines the Long-Term Reduction in Leaf Transpiration of Poplar in Elevated CO2. Oecologia, 143, 652-660.

[52]   Lake, J.A. and Woodward, F.I. (2008) Response of Stomatal Numbers to CO2 and Humidity: Control by Transpiration Rate and Abscisic Acid. New Phytologist, 179, 397-404.

[53]   Richardson, A.D., Ashton, P.M.S., Berlyn, G.P., McGroddy, M.E. and Cameron, I.R. (2001) Within-Crown Foliar Plasticity of Western Hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla, in Relation to Stand Age. Annals of Botany, 88, 1007-1015.

[54]   Sekiya, N. and Yano, K. (2008) Stomatal Density of Cowpea Correlates with Carbon Isotope Discrimination in Different Phosphorus, Water and CO2 Environments. New Phytologist, 179, 799-807.

[55]   Fraser, L.H., Greenall, A., Carlyle, C., Turkington, R. and Friedman, C.R. (2009) Adaptive Phenotypic Plasticity of Pseudoroegneria spicata: Response of Stomatal Density, Leaf Area and Biomass to Changes in Water Supply and Increased Temperature. Annals of Botany, 103, 769-775.

[56]   Doheny-Adams, T., Hunt, L., Franks, P.J., Beerling, D.J. and Gray, J.E. (2012) Genetic Manipulation of Stomatal Density Influences Stomatal Size, Plant Growth and Tolerance to Restricted Water Supply across a Growth Carbon Dioxide Gradient. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B: Biological Sciences, 367, 547-555.

[57]   Dunlap, J.M. and Stettler, R.F. (2001) Variation in Leaf Epidermal and Stomatal Traits of Populus trichocarpa from Two Transects across the Washington Cascades. Canadian Journal of Botany, 79, 528-536.

[58]   Belhadj, S., Derridj, A., Moriana, A., Gijon, M.D.C., Mevy, J.P. and Gauquelin, T. (2007) Comparative Morphology of Leaf Epidermis in Eight Populations of Atlas Pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Anacardiaceae), Microscopy Research and Technique, 70, 837-846.

[59]   Camargo, M.B. and Marenco, R.A. (2011) Density, Size and Distribution of Stomata in 35 Rainforest Tree Species in Central Amazonia. Acta Amazonica, 41, 205-212.

[60]   Poulos, H.M., Goodale, U.M. and Berlyn, G.P. (2007) Drought Response of Two Mexican Oak Species, Quercus laceyi and Q. sideroxyla (Fagaceae), in Relation to Elevational Position. American Journal of Botany, 94, 809-818.

[61]   Dudley, S.A. (1996) Differing Selection on Plant Physiological Traits in Response to Environmental Water Availability: A Test of Adaptive Hypotheses. Evolution, 50, 92-102.