AS  Vol.5 No.4 , March 2014
Distributed versus Lumped Optimization of Cropping Pattern and Water Resources Utilization
ABSTRACT

Several whole-farm agro-economic optimization models have been developed to deal with lumped planning issues in the agriculture sector. However, these models cannot be used to devise appropriate management strategies at land parcel level, because of the differences between farm characteristics, and the increased complexity of the hydrological processes. Based on Spatial Farm Database (SFD) which is consisted of a number of farm-level spatial data, including location, paddock properties, owner specifications and budgets, it is possible to provide the farm manager with some suggestions regarding the optimal choice of crops and the area to be allocated for each one. To this end, genetic algorithm is used in order to cope with model nonlinearity and a large number of decision variables. In order to test the proposed model, the Mobarakabad district is modeled with 126 agriculture fields, and the optimization model is run for this area. Results showed that the optimization procedure can find more realistic farm-level optimal solutions due to its advantage in adequate modeling of field characteristics, common groundwater resources, and the associated constraints. The results of lumped optimizations could also be used as benchmarks for the purposes of comparison and interpretation.


Cite this paper
Ghasemi, M. , Karamouz, M. and Shui, L. (2014) Distributed versus Lumped Optimization of Cropping Pattern and Water Resources Utilization. Agricultural Sciences, 5, 257-269. doi: 10.4236/as.2014.54029.
References
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[24]   Sabbaghpour, S., Naghashzadehgan, M., Javaherdeh, K. and Haddad, O.B. (2012) HBMO Algorithm for Calibrating Water Distribution Network of Langarud City. Water Science and Technology, 65, 1564-1569.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2012.045

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[26]   Pouyan-Shiraz-Consultants (2012) A Survey of Water Resources in Qaderabad-Madar Soleiman in Bakhtegan Basin for the Power Ministry. Fars, Boushehr, and Kohgilouye-Bouyr-Ahmad Regional Water Authority.

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[28]   Maddock, T. (1972) Algebraic Technological Function from a Simulation Model. Water Resources Research, 8, 129-134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/WR008i001p00129

[29]   Yazicigil, H. (1990) Optimal Planning and Operation of Multiaquifer System. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 116, 435-454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9496(1990)116:4(435)

[30]   Allen, R., Pereira, L.S., Raes, D. and Smith, M. (1998) Crop Evaporation: Guidelines for Computing Crop Requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 135.

[31]   Alizadeh, A. and Kamali, G.A. (2007) Crops Water Requirements. Imam Reza University Press, Mashhad.

[32]   Khademipoor, G. and Najafi, B. (2007) Effects of Government Protection Policies on Economic Incentives of Main Crops: A Policy Analysis Matrix Approach (PAM). 6th Agricultural Economic Conference, Mashhad, 30-31 October 2007.

[33]   Karamouz, M., Tabari, M.M.R. and Kerachian, R. (2007) Application of Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks in Conjunctive Use of Surface and Groundwater Resources. Water International, 32, 163-176.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02508060708691973

[34]   Abdolahi-ezatabadi, M. and Soltani, G. (1999) Computation of the External Cost of Overpumping from Water Resources, a Case Study of Rafsanjan (in Persian). Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 30, 36-44.

[35]   Montazar, A. and Rahimikob, A. (2008) Optimal Water Productivity of Irrigation Networks in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions. Irrigation and Drainage, 57, 411-423. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ird.376

[36]   Noory, H., Liaghat, A.M., Parsinejad, M. and Haddad, O.B. (2012) Optimizing Irrigation Water Allocation and Multicrop Planning Using Discrete PSO Algorithm. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 138, 437-444.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000426

[37]   Parsinejad, M., Yazdi, A.B., Araghinejad, S., Nejadhashemi, A.P. and Tabrizi, M.S. (2013) Optimal Water Allocation in Irrigation Networks Based on Real Time Climatic Data. Agricultural Water Management, 117, 1-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2012.10.025

[38]   Sadegh, M. and Kerachian, R. (2011) Water Resources Allocation Using Solution Concepts of Fuzzy Cooperative Games: Fuzzy Least Core and Fuzzy Weak Least Core. Water Resources Management, 25, 2543-2573.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11269-011-9826-x

[39]   Singh, A. (2012) An Overview of the Optimization Modelling Applications. Journal of Hydrology, 466-467, 167-182.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.08.004

[40]   Ghahraman, B. and Sepaskhah, A.-R. (2002) Optimal Allocation of Water from a Single Purpose Reservoir to an Irrigation Project with Pre-Determined Multiple Cropping Patterns. Irrigation Science, 21, 127-137.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002710100040

[41]   Soltani, G.R., Bakhshoodeh, M. and Zibaei, M. (2009) Optimization of Agricultural Water Use and Trade Patterns: The Case of Iran. In: Economic Research Forum Working Papers, No. 508.

[42]   Karamouz, M., Zahraie, B., Kerachian, R. and Eslami, A. (2008) Crop Pattern and Conjunctive Use Management: A Case Study. Irrigation and Drainage, 59, 161-173.

[43]   Craig, D. (1978) The Impact of Land Reform on an Iranian Village. Middle East Journal, 32, 141-154.

[44]   Bakhshi, A. (2005) Water Resources Economic. Agricultural Planning & Economic Research Institute (A.P.E.R.I.), 76.

[45]   Mahmoud, A.-Z. (2002) Water Pricing in Irrigation Agriculture. In: Irrigation Water Policies: Micro and Macro Considerations, Agadir.

[46]   Seckler, D., Amarasinghe, U.A., Molden, D., de Silva, R. and Barker, R. (1998) World Water Demand and Supply, 1990 to 2025: Scenarios and Issues. International Water Management Institute, Colombo, 52.

[47]   Rao, N., Sarma, P. and Chander, S. (1988a) A Simple Dated Water-Production Function for Use in Irrigated Agriculture. Agricultural Water Management, 13, 25-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3774(88)90130-8

[48]   Ghahraman, B. and Sepaskhah, A.R. (2004) Linear and Non-Linear Optimization Models for Allocation of a Limited Water Supply. Irrigation and Drainage, 53, 39-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ird.108

[49]   Salcedo-Sánchez, E.R., Esteller, M.V., Garrido Hoyos, S.E. and Martínez-Morales, M. (2013) Groundwater Optimization Model for Sustainable Management of the Valley of Puebla Aquifer, Mexico. Environmental Earth Sciences, 70, 337-351. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12665-012-2131-z

[50]   Reeves, H.W. and Zellner, M.L. (2010) Linking Modflow with an Agent-Based Land-Use Model to Support Decision Making. Ground Water, 48, 649-660. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6584.2010.00677.x

[51]   Harbaugh, A.W. (2005) MODFLOW-2005, the US Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model—The Ground-Water Flow Process. US Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, Volume 6-A16.

[52]   Larroque, F., Treichel, W. and Dupuy, A. (2008) Use of Unit Response Functions for Management of Regional Multilayered Aquifers: Application to the North Aquitaine Tertiary System (France). Hydrogeology Journal, 16, 215-233.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10040-007-0245-2

[53]   Alimohammadi, S., Afshar, A. and Ghaheri, A. (2005) Unit Response Matrix Coefficients Development: ANN Approach. Proceedings of the 5th WSEAS/IASME International Conference on Systems Theory and Scientific Computation, Malta, 15-17 September 2005, 17-25.

[54]   Shamsi, U.M. (2005) GIS Applications for Water, Wastewater, and Stormwater Systems. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9781420039252

[55]   Monke, E. and Pearson, S.R. (1989) The Policy Analysis Matrix for Agricultural Development. Cornell University Press, Ithaca.

[56]   Yao, S. (1997) Comparative Advantage and Crop Diversification; A Policy Analysis Matrix for Thai Agriculture. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 48, 211-222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-9552.1997.tb01146.x

[57]   Sepaskhah, A.R., Azizian, A. and Tavakoli, A.R. (2006) Optimal Applied Water and Nitrogen for Winter Wheat under Variable Seasonal Rainfall and Planning Scenarios for Consequent Crops in a Semi-Arid Region. Agricultural Water Management, 84, 113-122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2006.01.008

[58]   Sabbaghpour, S., Naghashzadehgan, M., Javaherdeh, K. and Haddad, O.B. (2012) HBMO Algorithm for Calibrating Water Distribution Network of Langarud City. Water Science and Technology, 65, 1564-1569.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2012.045

[59]   Klocke, N.L., Stone, L.R., Clark, G.A., Dumler, T.J. and Briggeman, S. (2006) Water Allocation Model for Limited Irrigation. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 22, 381-389. http://dx.doi.org/10.13031/2013.20458

[60]   Pouyan-Shiraz-Consultants (2012) A Survey of Water Resources in Qaderabad-Madar Soleiman in Bakhtegan Basin for the Power Ministry. Fars, Boushehr, and Kohgilouye-Bouyr-Ahmad Regional Water Authority.

[61]   Ghasemi, M.M., Bardideh, M. and Jahanafrooz, A. (2010) A Simple Method For Preparing Farms Spatial Database (A Case Study on the Destrict of Pasargad in Fars Province). MRSS 6th International Remote Sensing & GIS Conference and Exhibition, Kuala Lumpur, 28-29 April 2010.

[62]   Maddock, T. (1972) Algebraic Technological Function from a Simulation Model. Water Resources Research, 8, 129-134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/WR008i001p00129

[63]   Yazicigil, H. (1990) Optimal Planning and Operation of Multiaquifer System. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 116, 435-454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9496(1990)116:4(435)

[64]   Allen, R., Pereira, L.S., Raes, D. and Smith, M. (1998) Crop Evaporation: Guidelines for Computing Crop Requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 135.

[65]   Alizadeh, A. and Kamali, G.A. (2007) Crops Water Requirements. Imam Reza University Press, Mashhad.

[66]   Khademipoor, G. and Najafi, B. (2007) Effects of Government Protection Policies on Economic Incentives of Main Crops: A Policy Analysis Matrix Approach (PAM). 6th Agricultural Economic Conference, Mashhad, 30-31 October 2007.

[67]   Karamouz, M., Tabari, M.M.R. and Kerachian, R. (2007) Application of Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks in Conjunctive Use of Surface and Groundwater Resources. Water International, 32, 163-176.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02508060708691973

[68]   Abdolahi-ezatabadi, M. and Soltani, G. (1999) Computation of the External Cost of Overpumping from Water Resources, a Case Study of Rafsanjan (in Persian). Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 30, 36-44.

 
 
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