CE  Vol.5 No.4 , March 2014
Motivational Beliefs and Self-Regulation in Biology Learning: Influence of Ethnicity, Gender and Grade Level in Kenya
ABSTRACT

The study investigated the influence of ethnicity, gender and grade level on the motivational beliefs and self-regulation in Biology learning through a non-experimental quantitative study among 317 students in 2 co-educational schools in Nakuru (n = 155 ) and Siaya (n = 162) counties, Kenya. The study used a modified version of Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) which had 44 items to measure motivational beliefs and self-regulation. A 4 × 2 × 2 MANOVA revealed “ethnicity” as having the largest effect on these variables. There was a statistically significant difference between the Nakuru group and the Siaya group in favor of Nakuru with regard to self-efficacy in Biology learning. They also scored higher in most of the variables. There were no statistically significant gender differences in motivational beliefs and self-regulation in Biology learning. However boys were more self-efficacious with low test anxiety than girls. Girls had higher intrinsic value, cognitive strategy and self-regulation than boys. There were statistically significant grade level differences in favor of grade 12 students. Grade 11 students had the lowest scores in all the variables under investigation. The implications for the study are discussed.


Cite this paper
Ongowo, R. and Hungi, S. (2014) Motivational Beliefs and Self-Regulation in Biology Learning: Influence of Ethnicity, Gender and Grade Level in Kenya. Creative Education, 5, 218-227. doi: 10.4236/ce.2014.54031.
References
[1]   Bandura, A. (1982). Self-Efficacy Mechanism in Human Agency. American Psychologist, 37, 122-147.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.37.2.122

[2]   Bandura, A. (2001). Social Cognitive Theory: An Agentic Perspective. Annual Review Psychology, 52, 1-26.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.1

[3]   Basco, R. E., & Olea, M. T. (2013). Correlation between Anxiety Level and Academic Performance of BS Biology Freshmen Students. International Journal of Educational Research and Technology, 4, 97-103.

[4]   Boekaerts, M. (2002). Motivation to Learn: Education Practices, Series 10. International Academy of Education.
http://www.ibe.unesco.org

[5]   Cavas, P. (2011). Factors Affecting the Motivation of Turkish Primary Students for Science Learning. Science Education International, 22, 31-42.

[6]   Dancun, T. G., & Mc Keachie, W. J. (2005). The Making of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. Educational Psychologist, 40, 117-128.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep4002_6

[7]   Dornyei, Z. (2005). The Psychology of the Language Learner: Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition. Mahwar, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

[8]   Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational Beliefs, Values and Goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 109-132.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135153

[9]   Gall, M. D., Borg, W. R., & Gall, J. P. (2003). Educational Research: An Introduction (7th ed.). New York: Longman, Inc.

[10]   Gaskill, P. J., & Murphy, P. K. (2004). Effects of a Memory Strategy on Second Graders Performance and Self-Efficacy. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29, 27-49.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0361-476X(03)00008-0

[11]   Greene, B. A., & Miller, R. B. (1996). Influences on Achievement: Goals, Perceived Ability, and Cognitive Engagement. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21, 181-192.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1996.0015

[12]   Green, S. K. (2002). Using an Expectancy-Value Approach to Examine Teachers’ Motivational Strategies. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18, 989-1005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(02)00055-0

[13]   Guliz, K. & Semra, S. (2011). Elementary Students’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Science: Role of Grade Level, Gender and Socio-Economic Status. Science Education International, 22, 72-79.

[14]   Jahedi, S. (2007). A Study of Relationship between Motivational Beliefs and Self-Regulated Strategies and Academic Achievement of School Students. PhD Thesis, Pune: University of Pune.

[15]   Karatas, H., Alci, B., & Aydin, H. (2013). Correlation among High School Senior Students Test Anxiety, Academic Performance and Points of University Entrance Exam. Educational Research Reviews, 8, 919-926.

[16]   Keraro, F. N., Okere, M. I. O., & Anditi, Z. O. (2013). Cultural Influence on Pupils Understanding of Conception, Birth of Twins and Sex Determination in Kenya. International Education Studies, 6, 11-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ies.v6n5p11

[17]   Linnenbrink, E. A., & Pintrich, P. R. (2002). Motivation as an Enabler for Academic Success. School Psychology Review, 31, 313-328.

[18]   Marcou, A., & Philippou, G. (2005). Motivational Beliefs, Self-Regulated Learning and Mathematical Problem Solving. In H. L. Chick, & J. L. Vincent (Eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (Vol. 3, pp. 297-304). Melbourne: PME.

[19]   Meece, J. L., Glienke, B. B., & Burg, S. (2006). Gender and Motivation. Journal of School Psychology, 44, 351-373.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2006.04.004

[20]   Mezei, G. (2008). Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning: A Case Study of a Pre-Intermediate and an Upper-Intermediate Adult Student. WoPaLP, 2, 79-104.

[21]   Mih, V., & Mih, C. (2010). Components of Self-Regulated Learning: Implications for School Performance. Acta Didactica Napocensia, 3, 39-48.

[22]   Mills, H. R. (1991). Teaching and Training: A Handbook for Instructors (3rd ed.). London: Macmillan.

[23]   Nelson, R. M., & Debacker, T. K. (2000). Motivation to Learn Science: Differences Related to Gender, Class Type, and Ability. Journal of Educational Research, 93, 245-255.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220670009598713

[24]   Nolen, B. S., & Haladyna, T. M. (1990). Motivation and Studying in High School Science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 27, 115-126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tea.3660270204

[25]   Ozkan, S. (2003). Roles of Motivational Beliefs and Learning Styles on 10th Grade Students’ Biology Achievement. Msc Thesis, Ankara: Middle East Technical University.

[26]   Palmer, D. (2005). A Motivational View of Constructivist-Informed Teaching. International Journal of Science Education. 27, 1853-1881. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500690500339654

[27]   Pintrich, R. R., & DeGroot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and Self-Regulated Learning Components of Classroom Academic Performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 33-40.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.82.1.33

[28]   Pintrich, P. R., Marx, R. W., & Boyle, R. A. (1993). Beyond Cold Conceptual Change: The Role of Motivational Beliefs and Classroom Contextual Factors in the Process of Conceptual Change. Review of Educational Research, 63, 169-199.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00346543063002167

[29]   Pintrich, P. R. (2003). A Motivational Science Perspective on the Role of Student Motivation in Learning and Teaching Contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 667-686. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.95.4.667

[30]   Prokop, P., Tuncer, G., & Chuda, J. (2007). Slovakian Students’ Attitude toward Biology. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 3, 287-295.

[31]   Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using Multivariate Statistics (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

[32]   Tang, M., & Neber, H. (2008). Motivation and Self-Regulated Science Learning in High Achieving Students: Differences Related to Nation, Gender and Grade Level. High Ability Studies, 19, 103-116.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13598130802503959

[33]   Tuan, H. L., Chin, C. C., & Shieh, S. H. (2005). The Development of a Questionnaire to Measure Students’ Motivation towards Science Learning. International Journal of Science Education, 27, 634-659.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0950069042000323737

[34]   Usak, M., Prokop, P., Ozden, M., Ozel, M., Bilen, K., & Erdogan, M. (2009). Turkish University Students’ Attitude toward Biology: The Effect of Gender and Enrolment in Biology Classes. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 8, 88-96.

[35]   Yucel, M. S. (2013). The Effect of Blog Use on Self-Regulatory Learning of Prospective German Language Teachers. Educational Research Reviews, 8, 226-233.

[36]   Zimmermann, B. J. (1989). A Social Cognitive View of Self-Regulated Learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 329-339. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.81.3.329

[37]   Zimmerman, B. J. (1990). Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: An Overview. Educational Psychologist, 25, 3-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep2501_2

 
 
Top