OJPM  Vol.4 No.3 , March 2014
Development of a Systematic Review of Public Health Interventions to Prevent Children Drowning

Drowning is the leading cause of death from unintended injury in children globally. Drowning is preventable, and mechanisms exist which can reduce its impact, however the peer-reviewed literature to guide public health interventions is lacking. This paper describes a protocol for a review of drowning prevention interventions for children. Electronic searching will identify relevant peer-reviewed literature describing interventions to prevent child drowning worldwide. Outcome measures will include: drowning rates, water safety behaviour change, knowledge and/or attitude change, water safety policy and legislation, changes to environment and water safety skills. Quality appraisal and data extraction will be independently completed by two researchers using standardised forms recording descriptive and outcome data for each included article. Data analysis and presentation of results will occur after data have been extracted. This review will map the types of interventions being implemented to prevent drowning amongst children and identify gaps within the literature.

Cite this paper
Crawford, G. , Leavy, J. , Portsmouth, L. , Jancey, J. , Leaversuch, F. , Nimmo, L. , Reid-Dornbusch, L. and Hills, E. (2014) Development of a Systematic Review of Public Health Interventions to Prevent Children Drowning. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 4, 100-106. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.43014.
[1]   World Health Organization (2012) Drowning. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs347/en/

[2]   International Life Saving Federation (2007) World Drowning Report. International Life Saving Federation, Belgium.

[3]   International Life Saving Federation (2008) Position Statement: ILS Risk Assessment Framework. International Life Saving Federation, Belgium.

[4]   Smith, G. (2006) The Global Burden of Drowning. In: The Handbook of Drowning, 56-61.

[5]   Organisation, W.H. (2008) World Report on Child Injury Prevention. World Health Organisation, Geneva.

[6]   Royal Life Saving Society Australia (2012) Royal Life Saving Society—Australian National Drowning Report 2012. Royal Life Saving Society Australia, Sydney.

[7]   Plitponkarnpim, A., Anderson, R., Jansson, B., et al. (1999) Unintentional Injury Mortality in Children: A Priority for Middle Income Countries in the Advanced Stage of Epidemiological Transition. Injury Prevention, 5, 98-103.

[8]   Linnan, M., Rahman, A., Scarr, J., et al. (2012) Child Drowning: Evidence for a Newly Recognized Cause of Child Mortality in Low and Middle Income Countries in Asia. UNICEF Office of Research, Florence.

[9]   Ashby, K., Routley, V. and Stathakis, V. (1998) Enforcing Legislative and Regulatory Injury Prevention Strategies. Hazard, 1-16.

[10]   Paine, N. and Cassell, E. (2003) Local Government Enforcement of Private Swimming Pool Safety Regulations— Survey of Council Building Surveyors/Inspectors. Hazard, 2-20.

[11]   Weiss, J. (2010) Prevention of Drowning. Pediatrics, 126, e253-e262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2010-1265

[12]   Australian Water Safety Council (2012) Australian Water Safety Strategy 2012-2015. Australian Water Safety Council, Sydney.

[13]   Thompson, D. and Rivara, F. (1998) Pool Fencing for Preventing Drowning of Children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1, 1-13.

[14]   Brenner, R., Saluja, G. and Smith, G. (2003) Swimming Lessons, Swimming Ability, and the Risk of Drowning. Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 10, 211-215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1076/icsp.

[15]   Bugeja, L. and Franklin, R. (2012) An Analysis of Stratagems to Reduce Drowning Deaths of Young Children in Private Swimming Pools and Spas in Victoria, Australia. International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 20, 282-294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17457300.2012.717086

[16]   Bartlett, S. (2002) The Problem of Children’s Injuries in Low-Income Countries: A Review. Health Policy and Planning, 17, 1-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapol/17.1.1

[17]   Roen, K., Arai, L., Roberts, H., et al. (2006) Extending Systematic Reviews to Include Evidence on Implementation: Methodological Work on a Review of Community-Based Initiatives to Prevent Injuries. Social Science and Medicine, 63, 1060-1071. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.02.013

[18]   Purnell, M. and McNoe, B. (2008) Systematic Review of Drowning Interventions and Risk Factors and International Comparison of Water Safety Policies and Programs: Report to the Accident Compensation Corporation. Injury Prevention Research Unit, University of Otago, Dunedin.

[19]   Davies, J. and Sherriff, N. (2011) The Gradient in Health Inequalities among Families and Children: A Review of Evaluation Frameworks. Health Policy, 101, 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2010.09.015

[20]   Levine, E., Abbatangelo-Gray, J., Mobely, A., et al. (2012) Evaluating MyPlate: An Expanded Framework Using Traditional and Nontraditional Metrics for Assessing Health Communication Campaigns. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 44, s2-s12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2012.05.011

[21]   Bristow, K., Carson, J.B., Warda, L., et al. (2002) Childhood Drowning in Manitoba: A 10-Year Review of Provincial Paediatric Death Review Committee Data. Paediatrics & Child Health, 7, 637-641.

[22]   Franklin, R. and Pearn, J.H. (2010) Drowning for Love: The Aquatic Victim-Instead-of-Rescuer Syndrome: Drowning Fatalities Involving Those Attempting to Rescue a Child. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 47, 44-47.

[23]   Hyder, A., Borse, N.N., Blum, L., et al. (2008) Childhood Drowning in Low-and Middle-Income Countries: Urgent Need for Intervention Trials. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 44, 221-227.

[24]   Polinder, S., Segui-Gomez, M., Toet, H., et al. (2012) Systematic Review and Quality Assessment of Economic Evaluation Studies of Injury Prevention. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 45, 211-221.

[25]   Gregson, J., Foerster, S.B., Orr, R., et al. (2001) System, Environmental, and Policy Changes: Using the Social-Ecological Model as a Framework for Evaluating Nutrition Education and Social Marketing Programs with Low-Income Audiences. Journal of Nutrition Education, 33, s4-s15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1499-4046(06)60065-1

[26]   Medeiros, L.C., Butkus, S.N., Chipman, H., et al. (2005) A Logic Model Framework for Community Nutrition Education. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 37, 197-202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1499-4046(06)60246-7

[27]   Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., et al. (2009) Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Ana-lyses: The PRISMA Statement. PLOS Medicine, 6, e1000097. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000097

[28]   NPH (2004) The National Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Plan: 2004-2014. National Public Health Partnership, Canberra.

[29]   UNICEF (1989) Convention on the Rights of the Child. UNICEF, Florence.

[30]   Bambra, C.L., Hillier, F.C., Moore, H.J., et al. (2013) Tackling Inequalities in Obesity: A Protocol for a Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Public Health Interventions at Reducing Socioeconomic Inequalities in Obesity among Adults. Journal of Systematic Reviews, 2, 1-17.

[31]   Higgins, J. and Green, S. (2006) Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 4.2.6. The Cochrane Collaboration.

[32]   NIfHaCE (2009) The Guidelines Manual. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, London.

[33]   Joanna Briggs Institute (2008) Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewers’ Manual: 2008 Edition. Joanna Briggs Institute, Adelaide.

[34]   IBM (2010) SPSS Statistics. SPSS Inc., Chicago.