AJPS  Vol.5 No.5 , March 2014
Seed Germination and Production of Erythrina mulungu and Erythrina velutina Plantlets
Abstract: Species of the genus Erythrina are frequently used as ornamental plants and in projects to restore degraded areas. Also, extracts from its shoots and stems are popularly used as a herbal medicine with validated activity on the central nervous system. The objective of this study was to evaluate E. mulungu and E. velutina seed germination and seedling development potential aiming commercial scale production of those species. Seeds stored for one or twelve months at 10°C ± 2°C were sown in sand, soil or Plantmax? substrates and evaluated for germination and seedling development. Subsequently, seedlings sprouted in Plantmax? were transferred to polyethylene bags and kept in greenhouse, under direct sunlight for plant development (plant height, stem diameter and root length pivoting) evaluations. Four-month-old plantlets were transplanted to the field and after a period of one year the collar diameter and shoot height (of each plant were measured. Seed germination rates of both species grown in soil and in Plantmax? were significantly high (over 80%). Storing seeds for 1 month did not inhibit germination. However, seeds stored for twelve months had germination reduced by more than a quarter. The development of plants in greenhouse and in the field was satisfactory, indicating the viability of producing E. mulungu and E. velutina on a commercial scale, in order to meet the expanding market demand for herbal medicines.
Cite this paper: Pereira, A. , Souza, V. , Coppede, J. , França, S. , Bertoni, B. and Souza, A. (2014) Seed Germination and Production of Erythrina mulungu and Erythrina velutina Plantlets. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 535-540. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.55068.

[1]   Kass, D.L. (1994) Erythrina Species: Pantropical Multipurpose Tree Legumes. In: Gutteridge, R.C. and Shelton, H.M. Eds., Forage Tree Legumes in Tropical Agriculture, CAB International, Wallingford, 84-96.

[2]   Maixner, A.E. and Ferreira, L.A.B. (1978) Contribution to the Study of Native Forest and Fruit Essences in the State of Rio Grande do Sul: Erythrina crista-galli L. (Corticeira do Banhado). Wheat and Soybean, 28, 3-27.

[3]   Lorenzi, H. (1998) Brazilian Trees: Guide for Identification and Cultivation of Brazilian Native Plants. 2nd Edition, Plantarum, Nova Odessa, 205 Pages.

[4]   Backes, P. and Irgang, B. (2002) Southern Trees: Identification Guide & Ecological Interest: The Main Species Native to South Brazil. Instituto Souza Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 326 Pages.

[5]   Hardt, E., et al. (2006) Riparian Forest Restoration in Sand Minings of the Corumbataí River Basin: Efficacy in the Recovery of Biodiversity. Scientia Forestalis, 70, 107-123.

[6]   Albuquerque, U.P. and Andrade, C.H.L. (2002) Use of Savanna Plant Resources: The Case of the Wild Pernambuco (Northeast of Brazil). Interciência, 27, 336-334.

[7]   Teixeira, S.A. and Melo, J.I.M. (2006) Medicinal Plants Used in the City of Jupi, Pernambuco, Brazil. IHERINGIA, Series Botanica, 61, 5-11.

[8]   Onusic, G.M., et al. (2010) Effect of Acute Treatment with a Water-Alcohol Extract of Erythrina mulungu on Anxiety-Related Responses in Rats. Brazilian Journal Medical Biology Research, 35, 473-477.

[9]   Onusic, G.M., et al. (2010) Effects of Chronic Treatment with a Water-Alcohol Extract from Erythrina mulungu on Anxiety-Related Responses in Rats. Biological Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 26, 1538-1542.

[10]   Vasconcelos, S.M., et al. (2003) Antinociceptive Activities of the Hydroalcoholic Extracts from Erythrina velutina and Erythrina mulungu in Mice. Biological Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 26, 946-949.

[11]   Marchioro, M., et al. (2005) Anti-Nociceptive Activity of the Aqueous Extract of Erythrina velutina Leaves. Fitoterapia, 76, 637-642.

[12]   Dantas, M.C., et al. (2004) Central Nervous System Effects of the Crude Extract of Erythrina velutina on Rodents. Journal Ethnopharmacology, 94, 129-133.

[13]   Vasconcelos, S.M., et al. (2011) Central Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extracts from Erythrina velutina and Erythrina mulungu in Mice. Journal Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 56, 389-393.

[14]   Vasconcelos, S.M., et al. (2007) Anticonvulsant Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extracts from Erythrina velutina and Erythrina mulungu. Journal Ethnopharmacology, 110, 271-274.

[15]   Ribeiro, M.D., et al. (2011) Effect of Erythrina velutina and Erythrina mulungu in Rats Submitted to Animal Models of Anxiety and Depression. Brazilian Journal Medical Biololy Research, 39, 263-270.

[16]   Flausino Jr., O.A., et al. (2007) Anxiolytic Effects of Erythrinian Alkaloids from Erythrina mulungu. Journal Natural Products, 70, 48-53.

[17]   Flausino Jr., O.A., et al. (2007) Effects of Erythrinian Alkaloids Isolated from Erythrina mulungu (Papilionaceae) in Mice Submitted to Animal Models of Anxiety. Biological Pharmacceutical Bulletin, 30, 375-378.

[18]   Silva, K.B., et al. (2007) Breaking Dormancy of Erythrina velutina Willd Seeds. Brazilian Journal of Biosciences, 5, 180-182.

[19]   Silva, A.J.C., et al. (2010) Breaking Dormancy of Erythrina crista-galli Seeds. Bulletin of Forestry Research, 53, 65-78.

[20]   Teketay, D. (1994) Germination Ecology of Two Endemic Multipurpose Species of Erythrina from Ethiopia. Forest Ecology and Management, 65, 81-87.

[21]   Carvalho, N.M., et al. (1980) Germination of Seeds of Native Forest Species (Erythrina speciosa Andr.). Revista Brasileira de Sementes, 2, 81-88.

[22]   Maguire, J.D. (1962) Speed of Germination-Aid in Selection and Evaluation for Seedling Emergence and Vigor. Crop Science, 2, 176-177.

[23]   Rolston, M.P. (1978) Water Impermeable Seed Dormancy. The Botanical Review, 40, 365-396.

[24]   Carvalho, N.M. and Nakagawa, J. (2000) Seeds: Science, Technology and Production. 4th Edition, FUNEP, 5 Jaboticabal, 88 Pages.

[25]   Lazarotto, M., et al. (2011) Physiological Maturation of Erythrina crista-galli L. Forestry Science, 21, 9-16.

[26]   Miquel, S. (1987) Morphologie Fonctionnele de Plantules D’espèces Forestières du Gabon. Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, 9, 101-121.

[27]   Cardoso, E.A., et al. (2010) Erythrina velutina Seedling Emergence in Different Positions and Depths of Sowing. Rural Science [Online], 38, 2618-2621.

[28]   Matheus, M.T., et al. (2010) Overcoming Dormancy in Seeds of two Erythrina Species. Revista Caatinga, 23, 48-53.

[29]   Bento, S.R.S.O., et al. (2010) Efficiency of Current Tests to Evaluate Physiological Quality of Mulungu (Erythrina velutina WILLD) Seeds. Brazilian Journal of Seeds, 32, 111-117.

[30]   Medeiros, A.C.S. and Zanon, A. (2000) Storage of Sapuva (Machaerium stipitatum) Seeds. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal, No. 40, 57-66.

[31]   Ramos, K.M.O., Felfili, J.M., Fagg, C.W., et al. (2004) Initial Development and Biomass Production of Amburana cearensis (Allemão) AC Smith, under Different Shading Conditions. Acta Botanical Brasilian, 18, 95-101.

[32]   Carneiro, J.G.A. (1995) Production and Quality Control of Forest Plantlets. UFPR/FUPEF, Curitiba, 451 Pages.

[33]   Bhowmick, P.K. and Basu, P.S. (1987) IAA Production by Rhizobium sp. from a Leguminous Tree, Erythrina indica. Folia Microbiológica, 32, 142-148.

[34]   Krishnan, H.B. and Pueppke, S.G. (2010) Cultivar-Specificity Genes of the Nitrogen-Fixing Soybean Symbiont, Rhizobium fredii USDA257, Also Regulate Nodulation of Erythrina spp. American Journal of Botany, 81, 38-45.

[35]   Frioni, L., et al. (2001) Differentiation of Rhizobia Isolated from Native Legume Trees in Uruguay. Applied Soil Ecology, 16, 275-282.