JEP  Vol.2 No.2 , April 2011
Hollow-Fiber Microporous Membrane Liquid-Liquid Extraction for Determination of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers at Trace Levels in Sewage Sludge with Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detection
ABSTRACT
A two-phase hollow-fiber (HF) liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) method followed by gas chromatography was developed for quantification of 8 major polybrominated diphenyl ethers at trace level in sewage sludge. In this method the porous polypropylene hollow fibers filled with a few microliters of organic solvent, were immersed in aqueous samples of wet sludge which were spiked with the PBDEs at ng/l level. Parameters such as salt concentration, stirring speed, extraction time and pH were optimized and the optimum extraction conditions were then applied to the determination of PBDEs in sewage sludge from Källby sewage treatment plant in Lund. The optimized method allowed detection of 5.1 µg kg–1 and 0.43 µg kg–1 of BDE-47 and 183, respectively, in dried sludge. The findings were compatible with the results from recent research on PBDEs level in sewage sludge samples from Sweden. Although BDE-209 was expected to have the highest level, it was not detected. Limit of detection, photodegradation or/and biodegradation of BDE-209 during treatment or experiment are major reasons. Low organic solvent consumption, low sample volume requirement, high preconcentration factor, simplicity without using expensive instrument for extraction and excellent sample clean-up are some important factors that make this sample preparation technique very useful for determination of PBDEs in sludge.

Cite this paper
nullA. Aghili and J. Jönsson, "Hollow-Fiber Microporous Membrane Liquid-Liquid Extraction for Determination of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers at Trace Levels in Sewage Sludge with Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detection," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2011, pp. 198-203. doi: 10.4236/jep.2011.22023.
References
[1]   F. J. Di Carlo, J. Seifter and V. J. DeCarlo, “Assessment of Hazards of Polybrominated Biphenyls,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 23, 1987, pp. 351-365. doi:10.2307/3428783

[2]   R. A. Zweidinger, S. D. Cooper, M. D. Erickson, L. C. Michael and E. D. Pellizzari, “Sampling and Analysis for Semivolatile Brominated Organics in Ambient Air,” ACS Symposium Series, Vol. 94, 1979, pp. 217-231. doi:10.1021/bk-1979-0094.ch013

[3]   K. Nylund, L. Asplund, B. Jansson, P. Jonsson, K. Litzen and U. Sellstr?m, “Analysis for Some Polyhalogenated organic Pollutants in Sediment and Sewage Sludge,” Chemosphere, Vol. 24, No. 12, 1992, pp. 1721-1730. doi:10.1016/0045-6535(92)90227-I

[4]   U. Sellstr?m, A. Kierkegaard, T. Alsberg, P. Jonsson, C. Wahlberg and C. de Wit, “Brominated Flame Retardants in Sediments from European Estuaries, the Baltic Sea, and in Sewage Sludge,” Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 40, 1999, pp. 383-386.

[5]   J. de Boer, A. van der Horst and P. G. Wester, “PBDEs and PBBs in Suspended Particulate Matter, Sediments, Sewage Treatment Plant in- and Effluents and Biota from The Netherlands,” Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 47, 2000, pp. 85-88.

[6]   O. Anderson and G. Blomkvist, “Polybrominated Aromatic Pollutants Found in Fish in Sweden,” Chemosphere, Vol. 10, No. 9, 1982, pp. 1051-1060. doi:10.1016/0045-6535(81)90216-2

[7]   B. Jansson, R. Andersson, L. Asplund, K. Litzen, K. Nylund, U. Sellstr?m, U. B. Uvemo, C. Wahlberg, U. Wideqvist, T. Odsj? and M. Olsson, “Chlorinated and Brominated Persistent Organic Compounds in Biological Samples from the Environment,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 12, No. 7, 1993, pp. 1163-1174. doi:10.1002/etc.5620120704

[8]   A. Schecter, O. Paepke, K.-C. Tung, D. Staskal and L. Birnbaum, “Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Contamination of United States food,” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 38, 2004, No. 20, pp. 5306-5311. doi:10.1021/es0490830

[9]   A. Sj?din, L. Hagmar, E. Klasson-Wehler, K. Kronholm-Diab, E. Jakobsson and ?. Bergman, “Flame Retardant Exposure: Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Blood from Swedish workers,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 107, No. 8, 1999, pp. 643-648.

[10]   Anon., “Public Health Statement for Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers,” ATSDR (Agency for toxic substances and disease registry), Atlanta, GA., 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov

[11]   T. E. Stoker, S. C. Laws, K. M. Crofton, J. M. Hedge, J. M. Ferrell and R. L. Cooper, “Assessment of DE-71, a Commercial Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Mixture, in the EDSP Male and Female Pubertal Protocols,” Toxicological Science, Vol. 78, No. 1, 2004, pp. 144-155. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfh029

[12]   J. E. Haddow, G. E. Palomaki, W. C. Allan, J. R. Williams, G. J. Knight, J. Gagnon, C. E. O’Heir, M. L. Mitchell, R. J. Hermos, S. E. Waisbren, J. D. Faix and R. Z. Klein, “Maternal Thyroid Deficiency during Pregnancy and Subsequent Neuropsychological Development of the Child,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 341, 1999, pp. 549-555. doi:10.1056/NEJM199908193410801

[13]   L. Hardell, G. Lindstr?m, B. van Bavel, H. Wingfors, E. Sundelin and G. Liljegren, “Concentrations of the Flame Retardant 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabrominated Diphenyl Ether in Human Adipose Tissue in Swedish Persons and The Risk for Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma,” Oncology Research, Vol. 10, 1998, pp. 429-432.

[14]   CAL/EPA PBDE workgroup. “Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers: Recommendation to Reduce Exposure in California,” California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, California, 2006.

[15]   J. ?. J?nsson and L. Mathiasson, “Membrane Extraction in Analytical Chemistry,” Journal of Separation Science, Vol. 24, No. 7, 2001, pp. 495-507.

[16]   J. ?. J?nsson and L. Mathiasson, “Membrane-Based Techniques for Sample Enrichment,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 902, No. 1, 2000, pp. 205-225. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(00)00922-5

[17]   J. ?. J?nsson and L. Mathiasson, “Liquid Membrane Enrichment for Sample Preparation,” Trends in Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 18, 1999, No. 5, pp. 318-325. doi:10.1016/S0165-9936(99)00102-8

[18]   M. Gros, M. Petrovic and D. Barcelo, “Analysis of Emerging Contaminants of Municipal and Industrial Origon,” Handbook of Environmental Chemistry (D. Barcelo and M. Petrovic, eds.), Vol. 5, 2008, pp. 37-104.

[19]   J. Bj?rklund, P. Tollback, C. Hiarne, E. Dyremark and C. ?stman, “Influence of the Injection Technique and Column System on Gas Chromatographic Determination of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1041, No. 1-2, 2004, pp. 201-210. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2004.04.025

[20]   N. Fontalas, Th. Barri, S. Bergstr?m and J. ?. J?nsson, ”Determination of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers at Trace Levels in Environmental Waters Using Hollow-Fiber Microporous Membrane Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1133, No. 1-2, 2006, pp. 41-48. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2006.08.026

[21]   Y. Yamini, C. T. Reimann, A. Vatanara and J. ?. J?nsson, “Extraction and Preconcentration of Salbutamol and TerButaline from Aqueous Samples Using Hollow Fiber Supported Liquid Membrane Containing Anionic Carrier,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1124, No. 1-2, 2006, pp. 57-67. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2006.05.001

[22]   M. A. Sehlantman and J. J. Morgan, “Effects of Aqueous Chemistry on The Binding of PM-I by Dissolved Humic Materials,” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 27, No. 5, 1993, pp. 961-969. doi:10.1021/es00042a020

[23]   S. C. B. Myneni, J. T. Brown, G. A. Martinez and W. Meyer-Ilse, “Imaging of Humic Substance Macromolecular Structures in Water and Soils,” Science, Vol. 286, No. 5446, 1999, pp. 1335-1337. doi:10.1126/science.286.5443.1335

[24]   Th. Barri, S. Bergstr?m, A. Hussen, J. Norberg and J. ?. J?nsson, “Extracting Syringe for Determination of Organochlorine Pesticides in Leachate Water and Soil-Water Slurry: A Novel Technology for Environmental Analysis,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1111, No. 1, 2006, pp. 11-20. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2006.01.097

[25]   K. ?berg, K. Warman and T. ?berg, “Distribution and Levels of Brominated Flame Retardants in Sewage Sludge,” Chemosphere, Vol. 48, 2002, No. 8, pp. 805-809. doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00113-3

[26]   H. Hagenmaier, J. She, T. Benz, N. Dawidowsky, L. Düsterh?ft and C. Lindig, “Analysis of Sewage Sludge for Polyhalogenated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins, Dibenzofurans and Diphenylethers,” Chemosphere, Vol. 25, No. 7-10, 1992, pp. 1457-1462. doi:10.1016/0045-6535(92)90169-R

 
 
Top