OJAP  Vol.3 No.1 , March 2014
Wet Deposition Fluxes and Related Atmospheric Chemistry at Three Sites in Mexico
Abstract: Wet deposition was collected in Mexico City (MC), Metropolitan Area of Monterrey (MAM) and El Chico National Park (ECNP), during 2009 and 2010. pH, conductivity, Cl-, , Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were determined. In MC, sulphate levels were greater than nitrate levels, and NH4 had mixed sources (vehicular emissions and agriculture activities). MAM had markedly alkaline atmospheric deposition, Na+ and Cl-levels were unexpectedly high, especially during hurricane “Alex”. Low pH values were found in ECNP and nitrate concentrations were high, suggesting the influence of a local source (forest fires). Deposition fluxes (Kg.ha-1yr-1) for N-NO3, N-NH4 and S-SO4 were 1.36, 2.74 and 4.84 for MAM; 7.27, 0.57 and 4.32 for ECNP; and 5.97, 4.96 and 6.78 for MC, respectively. Nitrogen deposition fluxes in ECNP were high considering that this site is a natural reserve.
Cite this paper: Bretón, R. , Bretón, J. , Ucán, C. , Lara, E. , Álvarez, J. , Romero, C. and Pat, C. (2014) Wet Deposition Fluxes and Related Atmospheric Chemistry at Three Sites in Mexico. Open Journal of Air Pollution, 3, 1-9. doi: 10.4236/ojap.2014.31001.

[1]   Báez, A.P., Padilla, H.G., Cervantes, J., Pereyra, D. and Belmont, R. (1997) Rainwater Chemistry at the Eastern Flanks of the Sierra Madre oriental, Veracruz, Mexico. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 23329-23336.

[2]   Fenn, M.E., de Bauer, L.I., Quevedo-Nolasco, A. and Rodriguez Fraustro, C. (1999) Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition and Forest Nutrient Status in the Valley of Mexico. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 113, 155-174.

[3]   Padilla, H.G., Belmont, R., Torres, M.B. and Báez, A.P. (2000) Hurricanes Pauline and Nora Rainwater Chemical Composition. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 37, 569-578.

[4]   Cerón, R.M.B., Padilla, H.G., Belmont, R., Torres, M.C.B., García, R.M. and Báez, A.P. (2002) Rainwater Chemical Composition at the End of the Mid-Summer Drought in the Caribbean Shore of the Yucatan Peninsula. Atmospheric Environment, 36, 2367-2374.

[5]   Fenn, M.E., De Bauer, L.I. and Hernandez-Tejeda, T. (2002) Summary of Air Pollution Impacts on Forest in the Mexico City Air Basin. In: Fenn, M.E., Bauer, L.I. and Hernandez-Tejeda, T., Eds., Urban Air Pollution and Forests: Resources at Risk in the Mexico City Air Basin, Ecological Studies Series, Vol. 156, Springer-Verlag, New York, 337-355.

[6]   Pérez-Suárez, M., Fenn, M.E., Cetina-Alcalá, V.M. and Alderete, A. (2008) The Effects of Canopy Cover on Throughfall and Soil Chemistry in Two Forest Sites in the Mexico City Air Basin. Atmósfera, 21, 83-100.

[7]   Cerón, R.M., Cerón, J.G., Guerra, J.J., Núnez, E. and Muriel, M. (2010) Contribution of Anthropogenic and Natural Sources to the Levels of Trace Elements in Two Coastal Sites in Campeche, Mexico. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, 5, 282-298.

[8]   Ponette-Gonzalez, A.G., Weathers, K.C. and Curran, L.M. (2010) Tropical Land-Cover Change Alters Biogeochemical Inputs to Ecosystems in a Mexican Montane Landscape. Ecological Applications, 20, 1820-1837.

[9]   Rodhe, H. and Herrera, R. (1988) Acidification in Tropical Countries. 1st Edition, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., New York.

[10]   Tanner, E.V.J., Vitousek, P.M. and Cuevas, E. (1998) Experimental Investigation of Nutrient Limitations of Forest Growth on Wet Tropical Mountains. Ecology, 79, 10-22.[0010:EIONLO]2.0.CO;2

[11]   Tisch Environmental (2013) Global Distribution and Manufacturing of Environmental Monitoring Instruments.

[12]   Galloway, J.N. and Likens, G.E. (1976) Calibration of Collection Procedures for the Determination of Precipitation Chemistry. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 6, 241-258.

[13]   US EPA, Methods 150.1, 1201.1 (1982) Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes. US Environmental Protection Agency.

[14]   US EPA, Method 300.0 (1993) Anions. US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Nitrate, Sulphate and Chloride by IC, 600/4-79-020 Report.

[15]   APHA-AWWA-WPCF (1989) Ammonium in Wet Deposition/Automated Colorimetric. 600-86-024 Report.

[16]   US EPA, Methods 7770, 7610, 7140, 7450 (1986) Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes. US Environmental Protection Agency: Sodium-AA, Direct Aspiration SW-846 Chapter 3.3; Potassium-AA, Direct Aspiration SW846 Chapter 3.3; Calcium-AA, Direct Aspiration SW-846 Chapter 3.3; Magnesium-AA, Direct Aspiration SW-846 Chapter 3.3, Office of Research and Development.

[17]   Lakes Environmental, Inc. (2011) Lakes Environmental Software. WRPLOT View v.6.5.2. Freeware Wind Rose Plots for Meteorological Data.

[18]   Draxler, R.R. and Hess, G.D. (1997) Description of the HYSPLIT_4 Modeling System. NOAA. Tech. Memo. ERL ARL-224, NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, Silver Spring, 1-24.

[19]   Galloway, J.N., Likens, G.E., Keene, W.C. and Miller, J.M. (1982) The Composition of Precipitation in Remote Areas of the World. Journal of Geophysical Research, 87, 8771-8776.

[20]   Casimiro, A.P., Salgueiro, M.L. and Nunes, V.T. (1991) Seasonal and Air-Mass Trajectory Effects on Rainwater Quality at the South-Western European Border. Atmospheric Environment, 25, 2259-2266.

[21]   Ikkonen, E., Angeles-Cervantes, E.R. and García-Calderón, N. (2004) Producción de CO2 en Andosoles Afectados por Incendios Forestales en el Parque Nacional El Chico, Hidalgo. Terra Latinoamericana, 22, 425-431.

[22]   Angeles, E.R. (2010) Efectos Ecológicos de los Incendios Forestales Sobre el Bosque de Oyamel. Ph.D. Dissertation, Colegio de Postgraduados Campus Montecillo, Postgrado de Botánica.

[23]   CONAFOR-SEMARNAT (2009) Final Report of Forest Fires 2009. Weekly Report of results of Forest Fires, Protection Agency against Forest Fires, National Forest Commission-Environmental Mexican Agency.

[24]   NOAA NESDIS HMS (2009) Hazard Mapping System Fire and Smoke Product. US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service.

[25]   Sanhueza, E. and Rondon, A. (1988) Particle-Size Distribution of Inorganic Water Soluble Ions in the Venezuelan Savannah Atmosphere during Burning and Nonburning Periods. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 7, 369-388.

[26]   Echalar, F., Gaudichet, A., Cachier, H. and Artaxo, P. (1995) Aerosol Emissions by Tropical Forest and Savannah Biomass Burning: Characteristic Trace Elements and Fluxes. Geophysical Research Letters, 22, 3039-3042.

[27]   Yamasoe, M.A., Artaxo, P., Miguel, A.H. and Allen, A.G. (2000) Chemical Composition of Aerosol Particles from Direct Emissions of Vegetation Fires in the Amazon Basin: Water-Soluble Species and Trace Elements. Atmospheric Environment, 34, 1641-1653.

[28]   SIMA (2012) Federal District Government. Emissions Inventory for the Metropolitan Zone of Mexico Valley. Atmospheric Monitoring System, First Edition, Mexican Environmental Agency.

[29]   Bishop, G.A., Peddle, A.M. and Stedman, D.H. (2010) On-Road Emission Measurements of Reactive Nitrogen Compounds from Three California Cities. Environmental Science and Technology, 44, 3616-3620.

[30]   Huai, T., Durbin, T.D., Miller, J.W., Pisano, J.T., Sauer, C.G., Rhee, S.H. and Norbeck, J.M. (2003) Investigation of NH3 Emissions from New Technology Vehicles as a Function of Vehicle Operating Conditions. Environmental Science and Technology, 40, 7018-7022.

[31]   Monahan, E.C. (1968) Sea Spray as a Function of Low Elevation Wind Speed. Journal of Geophysical Research, 73, 1127-1137.

[32]   Lindner, B. and Frysinger, J.R. (2007) Bulk Atmospheric Deposition in the Charleston Harbor Watershed. Journal of Coastal Research, 23, 1452-1461.

[33]   Tsitouridou, R. and Anatolaki, C. (2007) On the Wet and Dry Deposition of Ionic Species in the Vicinity of Coal-Fired Power Plants, Northwestern Greece. Atmospheric Research, 83, 93-105.

[34]   Rodhe, H., Langner, J., Gallardo, L. and Kjellstrom, L. (1995) Global Scale Transport of Acidifying Pollutants. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 85, 37-50.

[35]   Galloway, J.N., Townsend, A.R., Erisman, J.W., Bekunda, M., Cai, Z.C., Freney, J.R., Martinelli, L.A., Seitzinger, S.P. and Sutton, M.A. (2008) Transformation of the Nitrogen Cycle: Recent Trends, Questions, and Potential Solutions. Science, 320, 889-892.

[36]   NOM-086-SEMARNAT-SENER-SCFI (2005) Specifications for Fuels in Mexico Related to Its Sulfur, Olefins and Benzene Content. Mexican Environmental Agency.

[37]   Pardo, L.H., Fenn, M.E., Goodale, C.L., Geiser, L.H., Driscoll, C.T., Allen, E.B., Baron, J.S., Bobbink, R., Bowman, W.D., Clark, C.M., Emmet, B., Gillian, F.S., Greaver, T.L., Hall, S.J., Lileskov, E.A., Liu, L., Lynch, J.A., Nadelhoffer, K.J., Perakis, S.S., Robin-Abbot, M.J., Stoddard, J.L., Weathers, K.C. and Dennis, R.L. (2011) Effects of Nitrogen Deposition and Empirical Nitrogen Critical Loads for Ecoregions of the United States. Ecological Applications, 21, 3049-3082.