OJFD  Vol.4 No.1 , March 2014
Investigation of Wave-Structure Interaction Using State of the Art CFD Techniques
Abstract: The suitability of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for marine renewable energy research and development and in particular for simulating extreme wave interaction with a wave energy converter (WEC) is considered. Fully nonlinear time domain CFD is often considered to be an expensive and computationally intensive option for marine hydrodynamics and frequency-based methods are traditionally preferred by the industry. However, CFD models capture more of the physics of wave-structure interaction, and whereas traditional frequency domain approaches are restricted to linear motions, fully nonlinear CFD can simulate wave breaking and overtopping. Furthermore, with continuing advances in computing power and speed and the development of new algorithms for CFD, it is becoming a more popular option for design applications in the marine environment. In this work, different CFD approaches of increasing novelty are assessed: two commercial CFD packages incorporating recent advances in high resolution free surface flow simulation; a finite volume based Euler equation model with a shock capturing technique for the free surface; and meshless Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. These different approaches to fully nonlinear time domain simulation of free surface flow and wave structure interaction are applied to test cases of increasing complexity and the results compared with experimental data. Results are presented for regular wave interaction with a fixed horizontal cylinder, wave generation by a cone in driven vertical motion at the free surface and extreme wave interaction with a bobbing float (The Manchester Bobber WEC). The numerical results generally show good agreement with the physical experiments and simulate the wave-structure interaction and wave loading satisfactorily. The grid-based methods are shown to be generally less able than the meshless SPH to capture jet formation at the face of the cone, the resolution of the jet being grid dependent.
Cite this paper: Westphalen, J. , M. Greaves, D. , Raby, A. , Hu, Z. , Causon, D. , Mingham, C. , Omidvar, P. , Stansby, P. and D. Rogers, B. (2014) Investigation of Wave-Structure Interaction Using State of the Art CFD Techniques. Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics, 4, 18-43. doi: 10.4236/ojfd.2014.41003.

[1]   WAMIT Inc. (2006) User Manual, Versions 6.4, 6.4 PC, 6.3, 6.3S-PC.

[2]   Delhommeau, G. (1993) Seakeeping Codes AQUADYN and AQUAPLUS. In: Proceedings of the 19th WEGEMT SCHOOL on Numerical Simulation of Hydrodynamics: Ships and Offshore Structures, Nantes.

[3]   Cummins, W.E. (1962) The Impulse Response Function and Ship Motions. Schiffstechnik, 47, 101-109.

[4]   Hadzic, I., Hennig, J., Peric, M. and Xing-Kaeding, Y. (2005) Computation of Flow-Induced Motion of Floating Bodies. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 29, 1196-1210.

[5]   Dixon, A.G., Greated, C.A. and Salter, S.H. (1979) Wave Forces on Partially Submerged Cylinders. Journal of the Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Devision, 105, 421-438.

[6]   Drake, K.R., Eatock Taylor, R., Taylor, P.H. and Bai, W. (2008) On the Hydrodynamics of Bobbing Cones. Ocean Engineering, 36, 1270-1277.

[7]   CD-Adapco (2009) STAR CCM+Version 4.04.011. London.

[8]   Tu, J., Yeoh, G. and Liu, C. (2008) Computational Fluid Dynamics: A Practical Approach. 2nd Edition, Butter-worth-Heinemann, Oxford.

[9]   Patankar, S.V. (1980) Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow. Taylor & Francis, London.

[10]   Patankar, S.V. and Spalding, D.B. (1972) A Calculation Procedure for Heat, Mass and Momentum Tranfer in Three-Dimensional Parabolic Flows. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 15, 1787-1806.

[11]   Hirt, C.W. and Nichols, B.D. (1981) Volume of Fluid (VOF) Method for the Dynamics of Free Boundaries. Journal of Computational Physics, 39, 201-225.

[12]   Ubbink, O. (1997) Numerical Prediction of Two Fluid Systems with Sharp Interfaces. PhD: 138, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College of Science, Technology & Medicine, London.

[13]   Greaves, D.M. (2004) A Quadtree Adaptive Method for Simulating Fluid Flows with Moving Interfaces. Journal of Computational Physics, 194, 35-56.

[14]   Ferziger, J.H. and Peric, M. (2001) Computational Methods for Fluid Dynamics. Springer, Heidelberg.

[15]   Ansys, I. (2006) ANSYS CFX-Solver Theory Guide. Canonsburg.

[16]   Baliga, B.R. and Patankar, S.V. (1980) A New Finite-Element Formulation for Convection-Diffusion Problems. Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A, 3, 393-409.

[17]   Baliga, B.R. and Patankar, S.V. (1983) A Control Volume Finite-Element Method for Two-Dimensional Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer. Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A, 6, 245-261.

[18]   Barth, J.T. and Jesperson, D.C. (1989) The Design and Application of Upwind Schemes on Unstructured Meshes. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), Reno.

[19]   Zwart, P.J., Scheuerer, M. and Bogner, M. (2003) Free Surface Modelling of an Impinging Jet. ASTAR International Workshop on Advanced Numerical Methods for Multidimensional Simulation of Two-Phase Flow, Garching, 15-16 September 2003.

[20]   Zwart, P.J. (2005) Numerical Modelling of Free Surface and Cavitating Flows. VKI Lucture Series, Ansys Canada Ltd, Canada, 25.

[21]   Rhie, C.M. and Chow, W.L. (1982) A Numerical Study of the Turbulent Flow Past an Isolated Airfoil with Trailing Edge Separation. AIAA/ASME 3rd Joint Thermophysics, Fluids, Plasma and Heat Transfer Conference, St. Louis, 7-11 June 1982.

[22]   Monaghan, J.J. (2005) Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics. Reports on Progress in Physics, 68, 1703-1759.

[23]   Vila, J.P. (1999) On Particle Weighted Methods and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics. Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences, 9, 161-209.

[24]   Guilcher, P.M., Ducorzet, G., Alessandrini, B. and Ferrant, P. (2007) Water Wave Propagation Using SPH Models. Proceedings of 2nd International SPHERIC Workshop, Madrid, 23-25 May 2007, 119-124.

[25]   Toro, F. (2001) Shock-Capturing Methods for Free-Surface Shallow Flows. John Wiley & Sons LTD, Hoboken.

[26]   Hirsch, C. (1990) Numerical Computation of Internal and External Flows, volume 2: Computational Methods for Inviscid and Viscous Flows, Wiley, Hoboken.

[27]   Chatkravathy, S.R. and Osher, S. (1983) High Resolution Applications of the Osher Upwind Scheme for the Euler Equations, AIAA Paper 83-1943. Proceedings of AIAA 6th Comutational Fluid Dynamics Conference, Danvers, July 1983, 363-373.

[28]   SPHysics. (2010) HYPERLINK.

[29]   Monaghan, J.J. and Kos, A. (1999) Solitary Waves on a Creatan Beach. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, 125, 145-154.

[30]   Chorin, A.J. (1968) Numerical Solution of the Navier-Stokes Equations. Mathematics of Computation, 22, 745-762.

[31]   Cummins, S.J. and Rudman, M. (1999) An SPH Projection Method. Journal of Computational Physics, 152, 584-607.

[32]   Lind, S., Xu, R., Stansby, P. and Rogers, B. (2012) Incompressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics for Free-Surface Flows: A Generalised Diffusion-Based Algorithm for Stability and Validations for Impulsive Flows and Propagating Waves. Journal of Computational Physics, 231, 1499-1523.

[33]   Skillen, A., Lind, S., Stansby, P. and Rogers, B. (2013) Incompressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) with Reduced Temporal Noise and Generalised Fickian Smoothing Applied to Body-Water Slam and Efficient Wave-Body Interaction. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 265, 163-173.

[34]   Xu, R., Stansby, P.K. and Laurence, D. (2009) Accuracy and Stability in Incompressible SPH (ISPH) Based on the Projection Method and a New Approach. Journal of Computational Physics, 228, 6703-6725.

[35]   Qian, L., Causon, D.M., Mingham, C.G. and Ingram, D.M. (2006) A Free Surface Capturing Method for Two Fluid Flows with Moving Bodies. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Science, 462, 21-42.

[36]   Causon, D.M., Ingram, D.M., Mingham, C.G., Yang, G. and Pearson, R.V. (2000) Calculation of Shallow Water Flows Using a Cartesian Cut Cell Approach. Advances in Water Resources, 23, 545-562.

[37]   Causon, D.M., Ingram, D.M. and Mingham, C.G. (2001) A Cartesian Cut Cell Method for Shallow Water Flows with Moving Boundaries. Advances in Water Resources, 24, 899-911.

[38]   Westphalen, J. (2010) Extreme Wave Loading on Offshore Wave Energy Devices Using CFD. PhD Thesis, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, 73-75.

[39]   Westphalen, J., Greaves, D., Williams, C.J.K., Zang, J. and Taylor, P. (2008) Numerical Simulation of Extreme Free Surface Waves. Proceedings of the 18th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Vancouver, 6-11 July 2008.

[40]   Rogers, B.D. and Dalrymple, R.A. (2008) SPH Modelling of Tsunami Waves. In: Advances in Coastal and Ocean Engineering Vol. 10, Advanced Numerical Models for Tsunami Waves and Runup. W. Scientific, Singapore.

[41]   Stallard, T., Weller, S.D. and Stansby, P.K. (2009) Limiting Heave Response of a Wave Energy Device by Draft Adjustment with Upper Surface Immersion. Applied Ocean Research, 31, 282-289.

[42]   Weller, S.D., Stallard, T.J. and Stansby, P.K. (2012) Experimental Measurements of the Complex Motion of a Suspended Axisymmetric Floating Body in Regular and Near-Focused Waves. Applied Ocean Research, 39, 137-145.

[43]   Taylor, P.H. and Williams, B.A. (2004) Wave Statistics for Intermediate Depth Water-NewWaves and Symmetry. Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, 126, 54-59.