ABC  Vol.4 No.1 , February 2014
Phytochemical screening, hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of leaf extracts of Zapoteca portoricensis
ABSTRACT
Fresh leaves of Zapoteca portoricensis are used in Eastern Nigeria for management/treatment of various disorders without any scientific basis. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties in albino rats, and phytochemical composition of distilled water and ethanol leaf extracts were studied. Fifty-five animals were placed in eleven groups (A-K) of five in each. Different doses (100, 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight) of the extracts, 20 mg/kg body weight of vitamin C (standard antioxidant) and distilled water were orally administered to groups A-H, I and J-K respectively for six consecutive days. On the seventh day, 2.5 ml/kg body weight of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was given intraperitoneally to groups A-J, while group K received distilled. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) were used to study hepatoprotective effect. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels in the liver were monitored to assess antioxidant activity. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides in the extracts. Pretreatment of the rats with the extracts produced a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in ALT, AST, GGT and MDA, while the activity of SOD and CAT increased significantly (p < 0.05) relative to the positive control. These results, which were dose-dependent, are indicative of hepatoprotective and antioxidants potentials of the extracts, and may be due to their phytoconstituents.

Cite this paper
Agbafor, K. , Ogbanshi, M. and Akubugwo, E. (2014) Phytochemical screening, hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of leaf extracts of Zapoteca portoricensis. Advances in Biological Chemistry, 4, 35-39. doi: 10.4236/abc.2014.41006.
References
[1]   Varadarajan, P., Rathinaswamy, G. and Asirvatahm, D. (2008) Antimicrobial properties and phytochemical constituents of rheo discolor. Ethnobotanical Leaflet, 12, 841-845.

[2]   Izo, A.A., Cario, G.D. and Briscard, D. (1995) Biological screening of Italian plants for antibacterial activity. Plant Medicine, 9, 281-284.

[3]   Craig, W.J. (1999) Health-promoting properties of common Herbs. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70, 491-499.

[4]   Valko, M., Moncol, J., Mazur, M. and Telser, J. (2007) Free radicals and antioxidants in Normal physiological functions and human disease. International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, 39, 44-84.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2006.07.001

[5]   Esterbauer, H., Schaur, R.J. and Zollner, H. (1991) Chemistry and Biochemistry of 4-hydroxyalkanals, malon-dialdehyde and related aldehydes. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 11, 81-128.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0891-5849(91)90192-6

[6]   Johnson, F. and Giulivi, C. (2005) Superoxide dismutases and their impact on human health. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 26, 340-352.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mam.2005.07.006

[7]   Chelikani, P., Fita, I. and Loewen, P. (2004) Diversity of structures and properties among catalases. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 61, 192-208.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-003-3206-5

[8]   Burtis, C.A. and Ashwood, E.R. (2003) Tietz fundamentals of clinical chemistry. 5th Edition, Elsevier Publishing, India.

[9]   Akubugwo, I.E. and Agbafor, K.N. (2007) Hepatotoxical evaluation of water and salt from Okposi and Uburu salt lakes, Nigeria. Estudos de Biologia, 29, 99-104.

[10]   Singh, J., Bagla, A. and Pahal, V. (2010) Hepatoprotective activity of herbal extracts in CCl4 intoxicated albino rats by measuring antioxidant enzymes. International Journal of PharmTech Research, 2, 2112-2115.

[11]   Agbafor, K.N. (2004) The effect of aqueous and organic extracts of fresh leaves of Baphia nitida on tissue acetyl-cholinesteraase in guinea pigs. Journal of Science and Technology, 10, 1-8.

[12]   Harborne, I.B. (1973) Phytochemical methods: A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. 2nd Edition, Chapman and Hall, New York, 88-185.

[13]   Trease, G.E. and Evans, W.C. (1983) Textbook of pharmacognosy. 12th Edition, Tindall and Co., London, 343-383.

[14]   Tietz, N. (2000) Fundamentals of clinical chemistry. 4th Edition, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 984-1002.

[15]   Aebi, H. (1974) Catalase. In: Bergmeyer, H.V., Eds., Methods in Enzymatic Analysis, Academic Press Inc., New York, 673-686.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-091302-2.50032-3

[16]   Ohkawa, H., Ohishi, N. and Yagi, K. (1979) Assay for lipid peroxide in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Annal Biochem. 95, 51-55.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(79)90738-3

[17]   Kakkar, P., Das, B. and Viswanathan, P. N. (1984) Modified spectrophotometric assay of SOD. Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics, 2, 130-132.

[18]   Sokal, R.R. and Rholf, F.J. (1969) Practice of statistic in research. Freeman Press, San Francisco, 21-26.

[19]   Kartik, R., Rao, V., Trivedi, S.P. and Reddy, G.D. (2010) Amelioration effects against N-nitrosodiethylamine and CCl4-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats by extracts of Achyranthes aspera. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 42, 370-375.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0253-7613.71921

[20]   Gaurav, M., Apminder, S.B. and Giridhar, S. (2008) N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced toxicity in relation to oxidative stress and development of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic diet-fed rabbits. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, 59, 409-414.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etp.2007.10.009

[21]   El-Segacy, O., Ab-Allah, A. and Al-Nooman, S.A. (2007) Experimental study of antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Clove and Cardamon in ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity. Tanta Medical Sciences Journal, 2, 27-36.

[22]   Soetan, K.O. (2008) Pharmacological and other benefits of antinutritional factors in plants. A. Review, African Journal of Biotechnology, 7, 4713-4721.

[23]   Nair, S., Nagar, R. and Gupta, R. (1998) Antioxidant phenolics and flavonoids in common Indian foods. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 46, 708-710.

 
 
Top