PSYCH  Vol.5 No.2 , February 2014
Gender Dysphoria and Body Integrity Identity Disorder: Similarities and Differences

Gender Dysphoria and Body Integrity Identity Disorder are sometimes together in the 19% of the cases. Other discomfort diseases related to identity, body scheme and/or integrity are discussed in relation to Gender Dysphoria. Because persons experiencing Gender Dysphoria need a precise diagnostic that protects their access to care and will not be used against them in social, occupational or legal areas a distinction diseases is provided in this text, because a meticulous description with clear exclusion criteria is required.

Cite this paper
Garcia-Falgueras, A. (2014). Gender Dysphoria and Body Integrity Identity Disorder: Similarities and Differences. Psychology, 5, 160-165. doi: 10.4236/psych.2014.52025.
[1]   Allen, L. S., Hines, M., Shryne, J. E., & Gorski, R. A. (1989). Two sexually dimorphic cell groups in the human brain. The Journal of Neuroscience, 9, 497-506.

[2]   Bandini, E., Fisher, A. D., Ricca, V., Ristori, J., Meriggiola, M. C., Jannini, E. A., Manieri, C., Corona, G., Monami, M., Fanni, E., Galleni, A., Forti, G., Mannucci, E., & Maggi, M. (2011). Childhood maltreatment in subjects with male-to-female gender identity disorder. International Journal of Impotence Research, 23, 276-85.

[3]   Beauregard, M., & Paquette, V. (2006). Neural correlates of a mystical experience in Carmelite nuns. Neuroscience Letters, 405, 186-190.

[4]   Bentz, E. K., Hefler, L. A., Kaufmann, U., Huber, J. C., Kolbus, A., & Tempfer, C. B. (2008). A polymorphism of the CYP17 gene related to sex steroid metabolism is associated with female-to-male but not male-to female transsexualism. Fertility and Sterility, 90, 56-59.

[5]   Bentz, E. K., Schneeberger, C., Hefler, L. A., van Trotsenburg, M., Kaufmann, U., Huber, J. C., & Tempfer, C. B. (2007). A common polymorphism of the SRD5A2 gene and transsexualism. Reproductive Sciences, 14, 705-709.

[6]   Blanchard, R. (1993). Partial versus complete autogynephilia and gender dysphoria. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 19, 301-307.

[7]   Braam, A. W., Visser, S., Cath, D. C., & Hoogendijk, W. J. (2006). Investigation of the syndrome of apotemnophilia and course of a cognitive-behavioural therapy. Psychopathology, 39, 32-37.

[8]   Brang, D., McGeoch, P. D., & Ramachandran, V. S. (2008). Apotemnophilia: A neurological disorder. Neuroreport, 19, 1305-1306.

[9]   Brugger, P., Lenggenhager, B., & Giummarra, M. J. (2013). Xenomelia: A social neuroscience view of altered bodily self-consciousness. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 204.

[10]   Butler, J. (1975). “Of Personal Identity” in “The Analogy of Religion”. Berkeley: University of California Press.

[11]   Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., & Gooren, L. J. (1999). Transsexualism: A review of etiology, diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 46, 315-333.

[12]   Corliss, H. L., Cochran, S. D., & Mays, V. M. (2002). Reports of parental maltreatment during childhood in a United States populationbased survey of homosexual, bisexual and heterosexual adults. Child Abuse & Neglect, 26, 1165-1178.

[13]   DeFelipe, J., Conley, M., & Jones, E. G. (1986). Long-range focal collateralization of axons arising from corticocortical cells in monkey sensory-motor cortex. The Journal of Neuroscience, 6, 3749-3766.

[14]   Eichenbaum, H., Schoenbaum, G., Young, B., & Bunsey, M. (1996). Functional organization of the hippocampal memory system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93, 13500-13507.

[15]   Fink, G. R., Markowitsch, H. J., Reinkemeier, M., Bruckbauer, T., Kessler, J., & Heiss, W. D. (1996). Cerebral representation of one’s own past: Neural networks involved in autobiographical memory. The Journal of Neuroscience, 16, 4275-4282.

[16]   Fink, G. R. (2003). In search of one’s own past: The neural bases of autobiographical memories. Brain, 126, 1509-1510.

[17]   First, M. B., & Fisher, C. E. (2012). Body integrity identity disorder: The persistent desire to acquire a physical disability. Psychopathology, 45, 3-14.

[18]   First, M. B. (2005). Desire for amputation of a limb: Paraphilia, psychosis, or a new type of identity disorder. Psychological Medicine, 35, 919-928.

[19]   Flor, H. (2002). Phantom-limb pain: Characteristics, causes, and treatment. The Lancet Neurology, 3, 182-189.

[20]   Garcia-Falgueras, A., Ligtenberg, L., Kruijver, F. P., & Swaab, D. F. (2011). Galanin neurons in the intermediate nucleus (InM) of the human hypothalamus in relation to sex, age, and gender identity. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 519, 3061-3084.

[21]   Garcia-Falgueras, A., & Swaab, D. F. (2008). A sex difference in the hypothalamic uncinate nucleus: Relationship to gender identity. Brain, 131, 3132-3146.

[22]   Hembree, W. C., Cohen-Kettenis, P., Delemarre-van de Waal, H. A., Gooren, L. J., Meyer 3rd, W. J., Spack, N. P., Tangpricha, V., & Montori, V. M. (2009). Endocrine treatment of transsexual persons: An endocrine society clinical practice guideline. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 94, 3132-3154.

[23]   Huh, J., Park, K., Hwang, I. S., Jung, S. I., Kim, H. J., Chung, T. W., & Jeong, G. W. (2008). Brain activation areas of sexual arousal with olfactory stimulation in men: A preliminary study using functional MRI. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 5, 619-625.

[24]   Khandelwal, A., Agarwal, A. & Jiloha, R. C., (2010). A 47, XXY female with gender identity disorder. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 1021-1023.

[25]   Kihlstrom, J. F., & Klein, S. B. (1997). Self-knowledge and self-awareness. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 818, 4-17.

[26]   Klempan, T., Hudon-Thibeault, A. A., Oufkir, T., Vaillancourt, C., & Sanderson, J. T. (2011). Stimulation of serotonergic 5-HT2A receptor signaling increases placental aromatase (CYP19) activity and expression in BeWo and JEG-3 human choriocarcinoma cells. Placenta, 32, 651-656.

[27]   Kreukels, B. P., & Cohen-Kettenis, P. T. (2011). Puberty suppression in gender identity disorder: The Amsterdam experience. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 7, 466-472.

[28]   Lawrence, A. A. (2010). Sexual orientation versus age of onset as bases for typologies (subtypes) for gender identity disorder in adolescents and adults. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 514-545.

[29]   LeVay, S. (1991). A difference in hypothalamic structure between heterosexual and homosexual men. Science, 253, 1034-1037.

[30]   Locke, J. (1975). Of identity and diversity. In Essay concerning human understanding. Reprinted in John Perry John, 1975, Personal identity. Berkeley: University of California Press.

[31]   Looy, H., & Bouma, H. (2005). The nature of gender: Gender identity in persons who are intersexed or transgendered. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 33, 166-178.

[32]   McGeoch, P. D., Brang, D., Song, T., Lee, R. R., Huang, M., & Ramachandran, V. S. (2011). Xenomelia: A new right parietal lobe syndrome. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 82, 1314-1319.

[33]   Money, J. (1977). Bisexual, homosexual, and heterosexual: Society, law, and medicine. Journal of Homosexuality, 2, 229-233.

[34]   Neggers, S. F., Van der Lubbe, R. H., Ramsey, N. F., & Postma, A. (2006). Interactions between ego- and allocentric neuronal representations of space. Neuroimage, 31, 320-331.

[35]   Ngun, T. C., Ghahramani, N., Sánchez, F. J., Bocklandt, S., & Vilain, E. (2011). The genetics of sex differences in brain and behavior. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 32, 227-246.

[36]   Nimbalkar, N. (2011). John locke on personal identity. Mens Sana Monogr, 9, 268-275.

[37]   Nishizawa, S., Benkelfat, C., Young, S. N., Leyton, M., Mzengeza, S., de Montigny, C., Blier, P., & Diksic, M. (1997). Differences between males and females in rates of serotonin synthesis in human brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 94, 5308-5313.

[38]   Ott, C. (2004). The evolution of perception and the cosmology of substance, James W: Principles of psychology, volume 1. New York: Henry-Holt & Co.

[39]   Phillips, K. A., Wilhelm, S., Koran, L. M., Didie, E. R., Fallon, B. A., Feusner, J., & Stein, D. J. (2010). Body dysmorphic disorder: Some key issues for DSM-V. Depress Anxiety, 27, 573-591.

[40]   Ramachandran, V. S., & McGeoch, P. D. (2008). Phantom penises in transsexuals evidence of an innate gender-specific body image in the brain. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 15, 5-16.

[41]   Ramachandran, V. S., & Hirstein, W. (1998). The perception of phantom limbs. The D. O. Hebb lecture. Brain, 121, 1603-1630.

[42]   Ramachandran, V. S., & McGeoch, P. D. (2007). Occurrence of phantom genitalia after gender reassignment surgery. Medical Hypotheses, 69, 1001-1003.

[43]   Rauch, S. L., Shin, L. M., Dougherty, D. D., Alpert, N. M., Orr, S. P., Lasko, M., Macklin, M. L., Fischman, A. J., & Pitman, R K. (1999). Neural activation during sexual and competitive arousal in healthy men. Psychiatry Research, 91, 1-10.

[44]   Ruhe, H. G., Mason, N. S., & Schene, A. H. (2007). Mood is indirectly related to serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine levels in humans: A meta-analysis of monoamine depletion studies. Molecular Psychiatry, 12, 331-359.

[45]   Smith, Y. L., van Goozen, S. H., Kuiper, A. J., & Cohen-Kettenis, P. T. (2005). Transsexual subtypes: Clinical and theoretical significance. Psychiatry Research, 137, 151-160.

[46]   Sollberger, D. (2013). On identity: From a philosophical point of view. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 7, 29.

[47]   Stafford, N. (2013). Germany is first European country to recognise third sex on birth certificates. BMJ, 22, Article ID: f5249.

[48]   van Dijk, M. T., van Wingen, G. A., van Lammeren, A., Blom, R. M., de Kwaasteniet, B. P., Scholte, H. S., & Denys, D. (2013). Neural basis of limb ownership in individuals with body integrity identity disorder. PLoS One, 8, Article ID: e72212.

[49]   Viard, A., Piolino, P., Desgranges, B., Chételat, G., Lebreton, K., Landeau, B., Young, A., De La Sayette, V., & Eustache, F. (2007). Hippocampal activation for autobiographical memories over the entire lifetime in healthy aged subjects: An fMRI study. Cereb Cortex, 17, 2453-2467.

[50]   Zucker, K. J., Wood, H., Singh, D., & Bradley, S. J. (2012). A developmental, biopsychosocial model for the treatment of children with gender identity disorder. Journal of Homosexuality, 59, 369-397.