Health  Vol.6 No.5 , February 2014
Assessment of dairy products consumed on the Arakmarket as determined by heavy metal residues
Abstract: Dairy products are nutritious drink and can play a significant part in a healthy diet. The safety of dairy products decreases with increasing concentration of toxic compounds and environmental pollutants (especially heavy metals). In the present study, the contamination of Al, Sn, As, Cd, Hg and Pb in dairy products (pasteurized milk, yogurt, yogurt drink, cheese) consumed in Arak, Iran, 2013 was evaluated using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) method. To meet the aim, 60 samples of 5 different brands, consisting of pasteurized milk, yogurt, yogurt drink, cheese (n = 15) were selected and analyzed for heavy metals content. 100% of the samples were positive regarding the total average and range concentration of Al, Sn, As, Cd, Hg and Pb in dairy products was 168.25 ± 92.2 (30.6 - 356.5), 5.9 ± 4 (1.1 - 16), 3.2 ± 1.95 (0.4 - 8.1), 4.55 ± 2.6 (0.6 - 10.6), 23.15 ± 10.4 (6.8 - 50.2) and 15.4 ± 8.53 (3.1 - 40.2) μg/kg, respectively. 28.3% (17 of 60 samples) of dairy products samples had lead (Pb) greater than EU limit and national Iranian standard (20 μg/kg). Statistical analysis indicated except about As in pasteurized milk and cheese there was no significant difference between products in terms of heavy metals content.
Cite this paper: Rezaei, M. , Akbari Dastjerdi, H. , Jafari, H. , Farahi, A. , Shahabi, A. , Javdani, H. , Teimoory, H. , Yahyaei, M. and Malekirad, A. (2014) Assessment of dairy products consumed on the Arakmarket as determined by heavy metal residues. Health, 6, 323-327. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.65047.

[1]   Iwegbue, C.M., Nwozo, S.O., Ossai, E.K. and Nwajei, G.E. (2008) Heavy metal composition of some imported canned fruit drinks in Nigeria. American Journal of Food Technology, 3, 220-223.

[2]   Rezaei, M., et al. (2013) A survey of microbial total count and prevalence of Escherichia coliin raw milk in Markazi Province, Iran. Research Opinions in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 3, 474-477.

[3]   Teimoory, H., et al. (2013) Antibacterial activity of Myrtus communis L. and Zingiber officinalerose extracts against some Gram positive pathogens. Research Opinions in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 3, 478-481.

[4]   Namihira, D., Saldivar, L., Pustilnik, N., Carreón, G.J. and Salinas, M.E. (1993) Lead in human blood and milk from nursing women living near a smelter in Mexico City. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 38, 225-232.

[5]   Isaac, C.P., Sivakumar, A. and Kumar, C.R. (2012) Lead levels in breast milk, blood plasma and intelligence quotient: A health hazard for women and infants. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 88, 145-149.

[6]   Malhat, F., Hagag, M., Saber, A. and Fayz, A.E. (2012) Contamination of cows milk by heavy metal in Egypt. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 88, 611-613.

[7]   Fatima, I., Wasim, M. and Rehman, S. (2011) Dietary exposure to essential and toxic elements from fresh, pasteurised and powder milk samples from pakistan. Nucleus, 48, 315-322.

[8]   Fani, A., et al. (2013) Aflatoxin Occurrence in Nuts Consumed in Arak, Iran. International Journal of Food Safety Nutrition and Public Health, 4, 91-97.

[9]   Rezaei, M., et al. (2013) Nitrite in hamburgers in Arak, Iran. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part B, 1-4.

[10]   Afridi, H.I., Kazi, T.G., Kazi, N.G., Jamali, M.K., Arain, M.B., Sirajuddin, Baig, J.A., Kandhro, G.A., Wadhwa, S.K. and Shah, A.Q. (2010) Evaluation of cadmium, lead, nickel and zinc status in biological samples of smokers and nonsmokers hypertensive patients. Journal of Human Hypertension, 24, 34-43.

[11]   Jalbani, N., Kazi, T.G. and Hassan, I. (2009) Determination of toxic metals in different brand of chocolates and candies, marketed in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Analytical & Environmental Chemistry, 10, 48-52.

[12]   Anastasio, A., Caggiano, R., Macchiato, M., Paolo, C., Ragosta, M., Paino, S. and Cortesi, M.L. (2006) Heavy metal concentrations in dairy products from sheep milk collected in two regions of southern Italy. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 47, 69.

[13]   Kazi, T.G., Jalbani, N., Baig, J.A., Kandhro, G.A., Afridi, H.I., Arain, M.B., Jamali, M.K. and Shah, A.Q. (2009) Assessment of toxic metals in raw and processed milk samples using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47, 2163-2169.

[14]   Tajkarimi, M., Ahmadi Faghih, M., Poursoltani, H., Salah Nejad, A., Motallebi, A.A. and Mahdavi, H. (2008) Lead residue levels in raw milk from different regions of Iran. Food Control, 19, 495-498.

[15]   Gradinaru, A.-C. Popescu, O. and Solcan, G. (2011) Variation analysis of heavy metal residues in milk and their incidence in milk products from Moldavia, Romania. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 10, 1445-1450.

[16]   Javed, I., I. Jan, Muhammad, F., Ziaur-Rahman, Zargham Khan, M., Aslam, B. and Sultan, J.I. (2009) Heavy metal residues in the milk of cattle and goats during winter season. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 82, 616-620.

[17]   Farid, S. and Baloch, M.K. (2012) Heavy metal ions in milk samples collected from animals feed with city effluent irrigated fodder. Greener Journal of Physical Sciences, 2, 010-017.

[18]   Pilarczyk, R., Wójcik, J., Czerniak, P., Sablik, P., Pilarczyk, B. and Tomza-Marciniak, A. (2013) Concentrations of toxic heavy metals and trace elements in raw milk of Simmental and Holstein-Friesian cows from organic farm. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185, 8383-8392.

[19]   Al-Saleh, I., Shinwari, N. and Mashhour, A. (2003) Heavy metal concentrations in the breast milk of Saudi women. Biological Trace Element Research, 96, 21-37.