AMPC  Vol.4 No.2 , February 2014
Effect of rf Plasma Carbonitriding on the Biocompatibility and Mechanical Properties of AISI 321 Austenitic Stainless Steel
ABSTRACT

AISI 321 austenitic stainless steel was treated using rf plasma carbonitriding with the intention of use low-cost orthopedic implant material in biomedical applications. The treatment process was carried at low working gas pressure of 0.075 mbar in nitrogen-acetylene gaseous mixture to form a superficial carbonitrided layer. The samples were treated using rf inductively coupled at a fixed plasma-processing power of 500 W and for a processing time varied from 4 to 20 minutes. The microstructural, mechanical and tribological properties of the untreated and treated samples were studied. The surface hardness is improved by rf plasma carbonitriding to a maximum of 1468 HV0.1 for plasma-processing time of 16 min. To evaluate the biocompatibility performance, the blood was cultured in RPMI media to test the adhesion of blood cells on the untreated and treated samples. It has been found that the blood adhesion on the treated samples is enhanced with increasing the plasma-processing time. The contact angle of the carbonitrided surfaces is decreased to lower values compared to that of the untreated surface. Furthermore, the carbonitrided layer in-vitro corrosion was tested in Ringers solution. A degradation in the corrosion resistance was observed for the sample carbonitrided at low plasma processing time of 4 min. However, the corrosion resistance increased to a maximum value at a plasma-processing time of 8 min then gradually decreased with further increase of plasma processing time.


Cite this paper
F. El-Hossary, A. El-Rahman, M. Raaif, A. Seleem and M. El-Kassem, "Effect of rf Plasma Carbonitriding on the Biocompatibility and Mechanical Properties of AISI 321 Austenitic Stainless Steel," Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry, Vol. 4 No. 2, 2014, pp. 33-42. doi: 10.4236/ampc.2014.42006.
References
[1]   A. M. Abd El-Rahman, “An Investigation on the Microstructure, Tribological and Corrosion Performance of AISI 321 Stainless Steel Carbonitrided by RF Plasma Process,” Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 205, No. 2, 2010, pp. 674-681.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2010.08.036

[2]   D. A. Moreno, A. M. García, C. Ranninger and B. Molina, “Pitting Corrosion in Austenitic Stainless Steel Water Tanks of Hotel,” Revista De Metalurgia, Vol. 47, No. 6, 2011, pp. 497-506.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/revmetalm.1146

[3]   K. S. Min and S. W. Nam, “Correlation between Characteristics of Grain Boundary Carbides and Creep-Fatigue Properties in AISI 321 Stainless Steel,” Journal of Nuclear Materials, Vol. 322, 2003, pp. 91-97.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3115(03)00274-5

[4]   Y. F. Liu, J. S. Mu, X. Y. Xu and S. Z. Yang, “Microstructure and Dry-Sliding Wear Properties of TiC-Reinforced Composite Coating Prepared by Plasma-Transferred Arc Weld-Surfacing Process,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 458, No. 1-2, 2007, pp. 366-370.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2006.12.086

[5]   A. K. Roy and V. Virupaksha, “Performance of Alloy 800H for High-Temperature Heat Exchanger Applications,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 452-453, 2007, pp. 665-672.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2006.11.082

[6]   Y. Okazaki and E. Gotoh, “Metal Release from Stainless Steel, Co-Cr-Mo-Ni-Fe and Ni-Ti Alloys in Vascular Implants,” Corrosion Science, Vol. 50, No. 12, 2008, PP. 3429-3438. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.corsci.2008.09.002

[7]   M. Vallet Regi, I. Izquierdo Barba and F. J. Gil, “Metal Release from Stainless Steel, Co-Cr-Mo-Ni-Fe and Ni-Ti Alloys in Vascular Implants,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, Vol. 67A, No. 2, 2003, pp. 674-678.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.10159

[8]   M. Asgari, A. Barnoush, R. Johnsen and R. Hoel, “Microstructural Characterization of Pulsed Plasma Nitrided 316L Stainless Steel,” Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 529, 2011, pp. 425-434.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2011.09.055

[9]   J. Wang, Y. H. Lin, J. Yan, D. Z. Zen, Q. Zhang, R. B. Huang and H. Y. Fan, “Influence of Time on the Microstructure of AISI 321 Austenitic Stainless Steel in Salt Bath Nitriding,” Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 206, No.15, 2012, pp. 3399-3404.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2012.01.063

[10]   J. Piekoszewski, L. Walisa and J. Langnerb, “Surface Morphology of Nitrogen-Alloyed Steels Using High Intensity Pulsed Plasma Beams,” Materials Letters, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1997, pp. 49-53.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-577X(96)00303-5

[11]   Y. M. Lin, J. Lu, L. P. Wang, T. Xu and Q. J. Xue, “Surface Nanocrystallization by Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment and Its Effect on Structure and Properties of Plasma Nitrided AISI 321 Stainless Steel,” Acta Materialia, Vol. 54, No. 20, 2006, pp. 5599-5605.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2006.08.014

[12]   J. Feugeas, B. Gomez and A. Craievich, “Ion Nitriding of Stainless Steels. Real Time Surface Characterization by Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction,” Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 154, No. 2-3, 2002, pp. 167-175.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0257-8972(02)00017-8

[13]   T. Czerwiec, H. He, S. Weber, C. Dong and H. Michel, “On the Occurrence of Dual Diffusion Layers during Plasma-Assisted Nitriding of Austenitic Stainless Steel,” Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 200, No. 18-19, 2006, pp. 5289-5295.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2005.06.014

[14]   A. Latifi, M. Imani, M. T. Khorasani and M. D. Joupari, “Electrochemical and Chemical Methods for Improving Surface Characteristics of 316L Stainless Steel for Biomedical Applications,” Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 221, 2013, pp. 1-12.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2013.01.020

[15]   N. Hallab, K. Bundy, K. O’Connor, R. L. Moses and J. Jacobs, “Evaluation of Metallic and Polymeric Biomaterial Surface Energy and Surface Roughness Characteristics for Directed Cell Adhesion,” Tissue Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2001, pp. 55-71.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/107632700300003297

[16]   F. El-Hossary, N. Z. Negm, S. M. Khalil and A. M. Abd Elrahman, “Formation and Properties of a Carbonitrided layer in 304 Stainless Steel Using Different Radio Frequency Plasma Powers,” Thin Solid Film, Vol. 405, No. 1-2, 2002, pp. 179-185.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0040-6090(01)01729-1

[17]   F. M. El-Hossary, N. Z. Negm, A. M. Abd El-Rahman and M. Hammad, “Duplex Treatment of 304 AISI Stainless Steel Using rf Plasma Nitriding and Carbonitriding,” Materials Science and Engineering: C, Vol. 29, No. 4, 2009, pp. 1167-1173.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2008.09.049

[18]   ASTM standard E384, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, 2011, PA 19428-2959.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/E0384-11

[19]   F. M. El-Hossary, “The Influence of Surface Microcracks and Temperature Gradients on the rf Plasma Nitriding Rate,” Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 150, No. 2-3, 2002, pp. 277-281.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0257-8972(01)01524-9

[20]   G. G. Tibbetts, “Role of Nitrogen Atoms in Ion-Nitriding,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 45, 1974, p. 5072.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1663186

[21]   S. Parascandola, O. Kruse and W. Moeller, “The Interplay of Sputtering and Oxidation during Plasma Diffusion Treatment,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 75, No. 13, 1999, p. 1851.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.124849

[22]   S. Parascandola, “Nitriding Stainless Steels at Moderate Temperature: Time- and Depth-Resolved Characterization of the Near Surface Composition during the Nitriding Process,” Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1999, p. 855.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1116/1.590650

[23]   A. M. Abd El-Rahman, F. M. El-Hossary, T. Fitz, N. Z. Negm, F. Prokert, M. T. Pham, E. Richter and W. Möller, “Effect of N2 to C2H2 Ratio on r.f. Plasma Surface Treatment of Austenitic Stainless Steel,” Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 183, No. 2-3, 2004, p. 268.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2003.09.057

[24]   C. Blawert, A. Weisheit, B. L. Mordike and R. M. Knoop, “Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation of Stainless Steel: Austenitic Stainless Steel in Comparison to Austenitic-Ferritic Stainless Steel,” Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 85, No. 1-2, 1996, pp. 15-27.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0257-8972(96)02880-0

[25]   C. Zhao, C. X. Li, H. Dong and T. Bell, “Low Temperature Plasma Nitrocarburising of AISI 316 Austenitic Stainless Steel,” Surface & Coatings Technology, Vol. 191, No. 2-3, 2005, pp. 195-200.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2004.03.004

[26]   C. Blawert, B. L. Mordike, G. A. Collins, K. T. Short, Y. Jirásková, O. Schneeweiss and V. Perina, “Characterisation of Duplex Layer Structures Produced by Simultaneous Implantation of Nitrogen and Carbon into Austenitic Stainless Steel X5CrNi189,” Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 128-129, 2000, pp. 219-225.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0257-8972(00)00651-4

[27]   A. M. Abd El-Rahman, S. H. Mohamed, M. R. Ahmed, E. Richter and F. Prokert, “Nitrocarburizing of AISI-304 Stainless Steel Using High-Voltage Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 267, No. 10, 2009, pp. 1792-1796.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2009.03.078

[28]   S. Mändl, E. Günzel, E. Richter and W. Möller, “Nitriding of Austenitic Stainless Steels Using Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation,” Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 100-101, 1998, pp. 372-376.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0257-8972(97)00651-8

[29]   M. Raaif, F. M. El-Hossary, N. Z. Negm, S. M. Khalil and P. Schaaf, “Surface Treatment of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy by rf Plasma Nitriding,” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, Vol. 19, No. 39, 2007, Article ID: 396003.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0953-8984/19/39/396003

[30]   V. F. Terent’ev, М. S. Мichugina, A. G. Kolmakov, V. Kvedaras, V. Ciuplys, A. Ciuplys and J. Vilys, “The Effect of Nitriding on Fatigue Strength of Structural Alloys,” Mechanika, Vol. 64, No. 2, 2007, pp. 12-24.

[31]   K. Hirao and M. Tomozawa, “Characterization of Different Materials for Corrosion Resistance under Simulated Body Fluid Conditions,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 70, No. 7, 1987, pp. 497-502.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1151-2916.1987.tb05683.x

[32]   F. Froehlich, P. Grau and W. Grellmann, “Performance and Analysis of Recording Microhardness Tests,” Physica Status Solidi (A), Vol. 42, No. 1, 1977, pp. 79-89.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pssa.2210420106

[33]   G. H. Frischat, “Strength of Inorganic Glass,” Plenum, New York, 1985, p. 135.

[34]   Z. J. Zheng, Y. Gao, Y. Gui and M. Zhu, “Characterization of Different Materials for Corrosion Resistance under Simulated Body Fluid Conditions,” Corrosion Science, Vol. 54, 2012, pp. 60-67.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.corsci.2011.08.049

[35]   I Gurappa, “Characterization of Different Materials for Corrosion Resistance under Simulated Body Fluid Conditions,” Materials Characterization, Vol. 49, No. 1, 2002, pp. 73-79.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1044-5803(02)00320-0

[36]   H. Dong, P. Y. Qi, X. Y. Li and R. J. Llewellyn, “Improving the Erosion-Corrosion Resistance of AISI 316 Austenitic Stainless Steel by Low-Temperature Plasma Surface Alloying with N and C,” Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 431, No. 1-2, 2006, pp. 137-145.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2006.05.122

[37]   D. Starosvetsky and I. Gotman, “Corrosion Behavior of Titanium Nitride Coated Ni-Ti Shape Memory Surgical Alloy,” Biomaterials, Vol. 22, No. 13, 2001, pp. 1853- 1859.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0142-9612(00)00368-9

[38]   C. H. Huang, J. C. Huang, J. B. Li and J. S. C. Jang, “Simulated Body Fluid Electrochemical Response of Zr-Based Metallic Glasses with Different Degrees of Crystallization,” Materials Science and Engineering C, Vol. 33, No. 7, 2013, pp. 4183-4187.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2013.06.007

[39]   W. T. Tsai and S. L. Chou, “Environmentally Assisted Cracking Behavior of Duplex Stainless Steel in Concentrated Sodium Chloride Solution,” Corrosion Science, Vol. 42, No. 10, 2000, pp. 1741-1762.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0010-938X(00)00029-9

[40]   M. Esfandiari and H. Dong, “The Corrosion and Corrosion-Wear Behaviour of Plasma Nitrided 17-4PH Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steel,” Surface & Coatings Technology, Vol. 202, No. 3, 2007, pp. 466-478.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2007.06.069

[41]   L. Wang, B. Xu, Z. W. Yu and Y. Q. Shi, “The Wear and Corrosion Properties of Stainless Steel Nitrided by Low-Pressure Plasma-Arc Source Ion Nitriding at Low Temperatures,” Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 130, No. 2-3, 2000, pp. 304-308.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0257-8972(00)00713-1

[42]   A. Fossati, F. Borgioli, E. Galvanetto and T. Bacci, “Corrosion Resistance Properties of Glow-Discharge Nitrided AISI 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel in NaCl Solutions,” Corrosion Science, Vol. 48, No. 6, 2006, pp. 1513-1527.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.corsci.2005.06.006

[43]   L. Wang, “Surface Modification of AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel by Plasma Nitriding,” Applied Surface Science, Vol. 211, No. 1-4, 2003, pp. 308-314.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4332(03)00260-5

[44]   K. Takahashi and S. Fukuzaki, “Cleanability of Titanium and Stainless Steel Particles in Relation to Surface Charge Aspects,” Biocontrol Science, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2008, pp. 9-16.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4265/bio.13.9

[45]   K. Bordji, J. Y. Jouzeau, D. Mainard, E. Payan, J. P. Delagoutte and P. Netter, “Evaluation of the Effect of Three Surface Treatments on the Biocompatibility of 316L Stainless Steel Using Human Differentiated Cells,” Biomaterials, Vol. 17, No. 5, 1996, pp. 491-500.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0142-9612(96)82723-2

[46]   L. Hao, J. Lawrence, Y. F. Phua, K. S. Chian, G. C. Lim and H. Y. Zheng, “Enhanced Human Osteoblast Cell Adhesion and Proliferation on 316 LS Stainless Steel by Means of CO2 Laser Surface Treatment,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research-Part B Applied Biomaterials, Vol. 73, No. 1, 2005, pp. 148-156.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.30194

[47]   G. C. L. B. Neto, M. A. M. da Silva and C. Alves, “In Vitro Study of Cell Behaviour on Plasma Surface Modified Titanium,” Surface Engineering, Vol. 25, No. 2, 2009, pp. 146-150.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/174329408X271561

[48]   A. Waterhouse, Y. B. Yin, S. G. Wise, D. V. Bax, D. R. McKenzie, M. M. M. Bilek, A. S. Weiss and M. K. C. Ng, “The Immobilization of Recombinant Human Tropoelastin on Metals Using a Plasma-Activated Coating to Improve the Biocompatibility of Coronary Stents,” Biomaterials, Vol. 31, No. 32, 2010, pp. 8332-8340.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2010.07.062

 
 
Top