JWARP  Vol.6 No.2 , February 2014
Metals Assessments in the Water Bodies of Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone, Nepal
ABSTRACT

Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park (SNP) of Nepal is a popular international eco-touristic destination. In the last few years, tourist flow has increased tremendously generating anthropogenic pressure on natural environment. Generation of huge solid waste, open defecation and poor septic tank condition of toilets have been considered as the major sources of pollution to water bodies in the area. Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead, chromium and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. Their presence in the atmosphere, soil and water, even in traces can cause serious problems to all organisms, and heavy metal bioaccumulation in the food chain especially can be highly dangerous to human health. Heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Mn, Fe and Zn) and metals (Na, Mg) were analyzed. Thirty nine (13 samples in each year) water samples were collected from river and springs to assess the water quality in the SNP and its buffer zone. Water quality in the SNP has been found degraded in terms of heavy metals; particularly Na and Mg contents were found higher when compared with the earlier report. Iron content in 46% samples was found more than WHO and Nepalese standard for drinking water. The river water quality in general still stands good in terms of standard for drinking water (WHO, Nepal standard) however degradation process has accelerated.


Cite this paper
Ghimire, N. , Shrestha, B. , Jha, P. and Caravello, G. (2014) Metals Assessments in the Water Bodies of Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone, Nepal. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 6, 68-74. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.62011.
References
[1]   P. K. Jha, “An Overview of Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) Region,” In: P. K. Jha and I. Khanal, Eds., Contemporary Research in Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) Region, Nepal: An Anthology, Nepal Academy of Science and Technology, Kathmandu, 2010, pp. 1-14.

[2]   U. R. Bhuju, P. R. Shakya, T. B. Basnet and S. Shrestha, “Nepal Biodiversity Resource Book: Protected Areas, Ramsar Sites and World Heritage Sites,” International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Kathmandu, 2007.

[3]   G. U. Carovello, A. M. Boselli, P. Bertollo and A. Baroni. “Assessing Ecosystem Health: An Analysis of Tourism Related Change and Impact in Khumbu Valley, Nepal,” Ecoprint: An International Journal of Ecology, Vol. 14, 2007. 45-64.

[4]   N. G. Ghimire, B. B. Shrestha, G. U. Caravello and P. K. Jha, “Sources of Water Pollution in Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone, Nepal,” In: P. K. Jha and I. Khanal, Eds., Contemporary Research in Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) Region, Nepal: An Anthology, Nepal Academy of Science and Technology, Kathmandu, 2010, pp. 103-109.

[5]   CBS, “Central Bureau of Statistics of Year Book,” Central Bureau of Statistics, Kathmandu, 2001.

[6]   WWF, “Sagarmatha Community Agroforestry Project. A Retrospectrive (1996-2002),” World Wide Fund/Nepal, Kathmandu, 2003.

[7]   APHA, AWWA, WPCF, “Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Waste Water,” American Public Health Association, Washington DC, 2005.

[8]   C. M. Sharma, S. Sharma, S. Gurung, I. Juttner, R. M. Bajracharya and N. Shrestha Pradhan, “Ecological studies within the Gokyo wetlands, Sagarmatha National Park, Nepal,” In: P. K. Jha and I. Khanal, Eds., Contemporary Research in Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) Region, Nepal: An Anthology, Nepal Academy of Science and Technology, Kathmandu, 2010, pp. 139-154.

[9]   B. Reynolds, A. Jenkins, P. J. Chapman and J. Wilkinson, “Stream Hydrochemistry of the Khumbu, Annapurna and Lantang Regions of Nepal,” In: Top of the World Enviromental Research: Mount Everest-Himalayan-Ecosystem, Backhuys Publishers, Leinden, 1998, pp.123-140.

[10]   C. M. Sharma, S. Sharma, R. M. Bajracharya, S. Gurung, I. Juttner, S. Kang, Q. Zhang and Q. Li, “First Results on Bathymetry and Limnology on High-Altitude Lakes in the Gokyo Valley, Sagarmatha (Everest) National Park, Nepal,” Limnology, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2012, pp. 181-192.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10201-011-0366-0

[11]   Sagarmatha Pollution Control Committee (SPCC), Annual Progress Report 2004/05-2005/06, Namche, Nepal, 2007.

 
 
Top