Back
 ARSci  Vol.2 No.1 , February 2014
Study of gonadic growth factors: Seminal transforming growth factor-β1, epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-I and their relationship with male infertility
Abstract: Background: The aim of this study was to establish normal reference values for several growth factors in semen and provide a basis for understanding their physiological significance in fertile and infertile subjects. Methods: 110 infertile men semen was evaluated according to WHO standards and by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA kit protocol) to determine the rate of growth factors (TGFβ1, IGFI, EGF). We have also listed neutrophils by staining with peroxidase to examine the association of inflammation with the levels of these factors. The determination of the epididymal (alpha-1,4-glucosidase) marker was directed according to the technical recommended by the WHO in 2010. Each patient received a hormonal balance including the determination of plasma FSH, LH and Testosterone. Results: Concentrations of TGFβ1 were significantly higher in (severe and extreme azoospermic, oligospermic) pathological groups compared to the control group (P < 0.01). This is related to the presence of high levels of leukocytes in the sperm, so a possible inflammation in the genital tract. We found no significant difference between the rates of seminal growth factors in patients with normal or elevated plasma FSH. Our results for the IGFI seminal showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) between control and pathological groups. The IGFI is partly testicular and/or epididymal as it is lowered in some patients with obstructive azoospermia. Positive correlations were observed between the seminal IGFI, mobility (r = 0.487) and sperm morphology (r = +0.187). Immunological sperm abnormalities and/or idiopathic do not alter the rate of EGF seminal. There is no significant correlation between seminal EGF or with sperm parameters or with plasma levels of FSH and LH. Conclusion: The growth factors are primarily peptides, handling and identification in a complex environment as the seminal plasma, but it requires a lot of precautions if we do not want to expose to the risk of bad farms/interpretations of data obtained.
Cite this paper: Amor, H. , Ajina, M. , Saad, A. and Ali, H. (2014) Study of gonadic growth factors: Seminal transforming growth factor-β1, epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-I and their relationship with male infertility. Advances in Reproductive Sciences, 2, 16-23. doi: 10.4236/arsci.2014.21003.
References

[1]   Nocera, M.A. and Chu, T.M. (1993) Transforming growth factor-b as an immunosuppressive protein in human seminal plasma. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 30, 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0897.1993.tb00594.x

[2]   Yie, S.M., Lobb, D.K., Clark, D.A. and Younglai, E.V. (1994) Identification of a transforming growth factor alpha-like molecule in human seminal plasma. Fertility and Sterility, 61, 129-135.

[3]   Hirata, Y., Uchihashi, M., Hazama, M. and Fujita, T. (1987) Epidermal growth factor in human seminal plasma. Hormone and Metabolic Research, 19, 35-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-1011730

[4]   Macpheron, M.L., Simmen, R.C.M., Simmen, F.A., Hernandez, J., et al. (2002) Insulin-like growth factori and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 and -5 in equine seminal plasma: Association with sperm characteristics and fertility. Biology of Reproduction, 67, 648-654.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod67.2.648

[5]   Liabakk, N.-B., Lien, E., Sundan, A., et al. (1993) High concentrations of the soluble p55 tumour necrosis factor receptor in human seminal plasma. Human Reproduction, 8, 1837-1842.

[6]   Spalekova, E., Makarevich, A.V. and Lukac N. (2011) Ram sperm motility parameters under the influence of epidermal Growth factor. Veterinary Medicine International, 2011, Article ID: 642931. http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/642931

[7]   Haney, A.F., Hughes, S.F. and Weinberg, J.B. (1992) The lack of effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1-alpha, and interferon-gamma on human sperm motility in vitro. Journal of Andrology, 13, 249-253.

[8]   Wincek, T.J., Meyer, T.K., Meyer, M.R. and Kuehl, T.J. (1991) Absence of a direct effect of recombinant tumor necrosis factor-alpha on human sperm function and murine preimplantation development. Fertility and Sterility, 56, 332-339.

[9]   Chu, T.M., Nocera, M.A., Flanders, K.C., et al. (1996) Localization of seminal transforming growth factor-b1 on human spermatozoa: An immunocytochemical study. Fertility and Sterility, 66, 327-330.

[10]   Comhaire, F., Bosmans, E., Ombelet, W., et al. (1994) Cytokines in semen of normal men and of patients with andrological diseases. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 31, 99-103.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0897.1994.tb00853.x

[11]   Gruschwitz, M.S., Brezinschek, R. and Brezinschek, H.P. (1996) Cytokine levels in the seminal plasma of infertile males. Journal of Andrology, 14, 158-163.

[12]   Miska, W. and Mahmoud, M. (1993) Determination of soluble interleukin-2 receptor in human seminal plasma. Archives of Andrology, 30, 23-28. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/01485019308988364

[13]   Rajasekaran, M., Hellstrom, W.J.G., Naz, R.K. and Sikka, S.C. (1995) Oxidative stress and interleukins in seminal plasma during leukocytospermia. Fertility and Sterility, 64, 166-171.

[14]   Naz, R.K. and Kaplan, P. (1994) Increased levels of interleukin-6 in seminal plasma of infertile men. Journal of Andrology, 15, 220-227.

[15]   Shimonovitz, S., Barak, V., Zacut, D., et al. (1994) High concentration of soluble interleukin-2 receptors in ejaculate with low sperm motility. Human Reproduction, 4, 653-655.

[16]   Shrivastava, M.D., Lippes, J. and Shrivastava, B.I. (1996) Cytokines of the human reproductive tract. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 36, 157-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0897.1996.tb00157.x

[17]   Nocera, M.A. and Chu, T.M. (1995) Characterization of latent transforming growth factor-b from human seminal plasma. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 33, 282-291.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0897.1995.tb00897.x

[18]   Benahmed, M. (1996) Growth factors and cytokines in the testis. In: Comhaire, F.H., Ed., Male Infertility. Chapman & Hall, London, 55-95.

[19]   Gnessi, L., Fabbri, A. and Spera, G. (1997) Gonadal peptides as mediators of development and functional control of the testis: An integrated system with hormones and local environment. Endocrine Reviews, 18, 541-609. http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/er.18.4.541

[20]   Noble, N.A., Harper, J.R. and Border, W.A. (1992) In vivo interactions of TGF-b and extracellular matrix. Progress in Growth Factor Research, 4, 369-382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0955-2235(92)90017-C

[21]   James, K. and Hargreave, T.B. (1984) Immunosuppression by seminal plasma and its possible clinical significance. Immunology Today, 5, 357-363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0167-5699(84)90079-3

[22]   Quaile, A., Kelly, J., Hargreave, R.W., et al. (1989) Immunosuppression by human seminal prostaglandins. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 75, 387-391.

[23]   Imade, G.E., Baker, H.W.G., de Kretser, D.M. and Hedger, M.P. (1997) Immunosuppressive activities in the seminal plasma of infertile men: relationship to sperm antibodies and autoimmunity. Human Reproduction, 12, 256-262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/12.2.256

[24]   Pollanen, P., von Euler, M., Jahnukainen, K., et al. (1993) Role of transforming growth factor b in testicular immunosuppression. Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 24, 123-137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-0378(93)90015-A

[25]   Glander, H.J., Kraatzsch, J., Weisbrich, Ch., et al. (1996) Insulin-like growth factor and a2-macroglobulin in seminal plasma correlate with semen quality. Human Reproduction, 11, 2454-2460.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.humrep.a019136

[26]   Ovesen, P., Fleyvbjrg, A. and Orskov, H. (1995) Insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) and IGF-binding proteins in seminal plasma before and after vasectomy in normal men. Fertility and Sterility, 63, 913-918.

[27]   Hamamah, S., Soufir, J.C., Hazout, A. and Benahmed, M. (1999) Facteurs de croissance et cytokines: Nouveaux marqueurs gonadiques dans l’evaluation de l’infertilite masculine. Andrologie, 9, 459-469. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03034662

 
 
Top