Health  Vol.6 No.3 , February 2014
Sodium and health: New proposal of distribution for major meals
Abstract: Sodium ingestion in regular diet exceeds individuals’ physiological needs, and it is etiologically related to various diseases. Studies estimate that the worldwide average individual intake of sodium reaches almost double the maximum limit of ingestion for the day only in the main meals: lunch and dinner. Culturally, sodium is highly used in meals to enhance the flavor of preparations. Then, the purposes of this research are to evaluate sodium use in meals prepared in Popular Brazilian Restaurants and to suggest the distribution of sodium for each kind of preparation of major meals. This is an exploratory cross-sectional research based on direct documentation subdivided in six steps: determination of samples of foodservices and menus; development of the technical preparation files offered in the menus; determination of the weight of average portions offered; determination of the average amount of sodium in the portions offered; estimation of sodium distribution regarding two parameters; and determination of the sodium distribution among preparations of major meals by the two proposed parameters. For results’ analysis, portions were calculated as well as the mean contribution of the preparation in the plate weight in percentage and the mean sodium contribution. Standard deviation is also presented. We verified through the study the possibility of using the distribution of sodium by two parameters: the first one considers the ratio of components’ weight in the menu in relation to the total weight of the meal; the second one considers the distribution of sodium in preparations in relation to the total amount of sodium in the meal. We expect the results of this research to improve menu planning in restaurants as to fulfill the actual clients’ needs in order to prevent diseases.
Cite this paper: Zandonadi, R. , Botelho, R. , Ginani, V. , Akutsu, R. , de Oliveira Savio, K. and Araújo, W. (2014) Sodium and health: New proposal of distribution for major meals. Health, 6, 195-201. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.63029.

[1]   Ribeiro, A.G., Cotta, R.M.M. and Ribeiro, S.M.A. (2012) The promotion of health and integrated prevention of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Ciência e Saúde Coletiva, 17, 7-17.

[2]   Campbell, N., Correa-Rotter, R., Neal, B. and Cappuccio, F.P. (2011) New evidence relating to the health impact of reducing salt intake. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases, 21, 617-619.

[3]   Strazzullo, P., D’Elia, L., Kandala, N.B. and Cappuccio, F.P. (2009) Salt intake, stroke, and cardiovascular disease: Meta-analysis of prospective studies. British Medical Journal, 339, 4567.

[4]   Cappuccio, F.P., Kalaitzidis, R., Duneclift, S. and Eastwood, J.B. (2000) Unravelling the links between calcium excretion, salt intake, hypertension, kidney stones and bone metabolism. Journal of Nephrology, 13, 169-77.

[5]   He, F.J., Marrero, N.M. and MacGregor, G.A. (2008) Salt intake is related to soft drink consumption in children and adolescents: A link to obesity? Hypertension, 51, 629-634.

[6]   Morris, M.J., Na, E.S. and Johnson, A.K. (2008) Salt craving: The psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake. Physiology & Behavior, 94, 709-721.

[7]   Sarno, F., Claro, R.M., Levy, R.B., Bandoni, D.H., Ferreira, S.R.G. and Monteiro, C.A. (2009) Estimated sodium intake by the Brazilian population, 2002-2003. Revista de Saúde Pública, 43, 219-225.

[8]   BRASIL. Ministério da Saúde (2006) Guia alimentar para a população brasileira.

[9]   IOM-Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board (2004) Dietary reference intake for water, potassium, sodium, chloride and sulfate. National Academies Press, Washington DC.

[10]   Spinelli, M.G.N. and Koga, T.T. (2007) Avaliação do consumo de sal em uma unidade de alimentação e nutrição. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Alimentação e Nutrição, 32,15-27.

[11]   Park, H.R., Jeong, G., Lee, S.L., Kim, J.Y., Kang, S.A., Park, K.Y. and Ryou, H.J. (2009) Workers intake too much salt from dishes of eating out and food service caféterias; Direct chemical analysis of sodium content. Nutrition Research and Practice, 3, 328-333.

[12]   Salas, C.K.T.S., Spinelli, M.G.N., Kawashima, L.M. and Ueda, A.M. (2009) Sodium and lipid contents of lunch meals consumed by workers of a company in Suzano, SP, Brazil. Revista de Nutrição, 22, 331-339.

[13]   Johnson, C.M., Angell, S.Y., Lederer, A., et al. (2010) Sodium content of lunchtime fast food purchases at major US chains. Archives of Internal Medicine, 170, 732-734.

[14]   Lawrence, G., Salles, C., Septier, C., Busch, J. and Thomas Danguin, T. (2009). Odour-taste interactions: A way to enhance saltiness in low-salt content solutions. Food Quality and Preference, 20, 241-248.

[15]   Bandoni, D.H. and Jaime, P.C. (2008) The quality of meals in companies participating in the worker’s food program in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Revista de Nutrição, 21, 177-184.

[16]   Akutsu, R.C., Botelho, R.A., Camargo, E.B., Savio, K.E.O. and Araujo, W.C. (2005) The technical cards as quality instrument for good manufacturing process. Revista de Nutrição, 18, 277-279.

[17]   Cochran, W.G. (1977) Sampling techniques. 3rd Edition, Wiley, New York.

[18]   Domene, S.M.A. (2011) Técnica dietética: Teoria e aplicações. Guanabara Koogan, Rio de Janeiro.

[19]   TACO. Tabela Brasileira de Composição de Alimentos (2006) Nepa-Unicamp. 2nd Edition, NEPA-UNICAMP, Campinas.

[20]   Carter, B.E., Monsivais, P. and Drewnowski, A. (2011) The sensory optimum of chicken broths supplemented with calcium diglutamate: A possibility for reducing sodium while maintaining taste. Food Quality and Preference, 22, 699-703.

[21]   Cobcroft, M., Tikellis, K. and Busch, J.L.H.C. (2008) Salt reduction—A technical overview. Food Australia, 60, 83-86.

[22]   Araujo, W.M.C., Montebello, N.P., Botelho, R.B.A. and Borgo, L.A. (2011) Alquimia dos alimentos. SENAC, Brasilia.