Back
 FNS  Vol.5 No.4 , February 2014
Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load of Selected Staples Based on Rice, Yam and Cassava Commonly Consumed in Côte d’Ivoire
Abstract: Integrating information on the glycemic index (GI) and the glycemic load (GL) of diet is limited in C?te d’Ivoire because of the lack of data. Thus, this study was undertaking for the local management and prevention of diabetes mellitus and its complications based on nutritional data (GI and GL values). The study included ten healthy subjects with 7 males, 3 females (28 ± 2 years on average age and 20.5 ± 1.7 on average BMI). Participants tested three different meals with equal carbohydrate load (50 g). Blood samples were obtained at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min before and after consumption for glucose levels determination. GIs were determined using a standard method with glucose as reference food and data were used for GLs calculating. Data showed that GIs value of pounded yam with eggplant sauce and cassava paste with granulates palm nut sauce were high ranging to 94 to 86 respectively while rice with groundnut sauce, have a low GI (GI = 45). Nevertheless, the GLs of the all the test foods are high with the values of 47, 43 and 23 (g) for pounded yam with eggplant sauce, cassava paste with granulates palm nut sauce and rice with groundnut sauce respectively. According to GIs and GLs data, the three test foods must be consumed moderately in a diet. So, it is important to associate GL data to GI data of Ivorian traditional foods for the management and the prevention of diabetes mellitus in C?te d’Ivoire and in others countries sharing the same food tradition.
Cite this paper: C. Kouamé, N. Kouassi, A. Coulibaly, D. N’dri, G. Tiahou, L. Adrien and G. Amani, "Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load of Selected Staples Based on Rice, Yam and Cassava Commonly Consumed in Côte d’Ivoire," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 5 No. 4, 2014, pp. 308-315. doi: 10.4236/fns.2014.54037.
References

[1]   S. B. Gning, M. Thiam, F. Fall, K. Ba-Fall, P. S. Mbaye and L. Foucarde, “Le Diabète sucré en Afrique SubSaharienne: Aspect Epidémiologique, Difficultés de Prise en Charge,”Médecine Tropicale, Vol. 67, No. 6, 2007, pp. 607-611.

[2]   “Atlas du Diabète de la Fédération Internationale du Diabète,” Cinquième Edition, Mise à Jour, 2012.
www.idf.org/diabetesatlas

[3]   A. J. C. Azoh, A. Lokrou, D. Koffi, A. M. Dem-Niacadié, J. Abodo, M. D. Laubhouet, A. Derbé, M. Sanogo, F. Amani, A. Doumbia and F. Kouassi, “Diabète et Syndrome Métabolique en cote d’Ivoire: à Propos d’une Série de 85 cas,” Diabetes & Metabolism, Vol. 33, No. Spe1, 2007, p. 54.

[4]   A. S. S. Oga, J. A. Tebi, V. K. Adouemi, K. A. Malan, A. Kouadio and A. Lokrou, “Le Diabète Diagnostiqué en Cote d’Ivoire: Des Particularités Epidémiologiques,”Médecine Tropicale, Vol. 66, 2006, pp. 241-246.

[5]   K. N. Kouassi, G. G. Tiahou, F. R. J. Abodo, M. CamaraCisse and N. G. Amani, “Influence of the Variety and Cooking Method on Glycemic Index of Yam,” Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 8, No. 7, 2009, pp. 993-999.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2009.993.999

[6]   M. Kalergis, E. De Grandpre and C. Andersons, “The Role of the Glycemic Index in the Prevention and Management of Diabetes: A Review and Discussion,” Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Vol. 29, No. 1, 2005, pp. 27-38.

[7]   M. Sleeth, A. Psichas and G. Frost, “Weight Gain and Insulin Sensitivity: A Role for the Glycaemic Index and Dietary Fibre?” British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 109, No. 9, 2012, pp. 1539-1541.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114512005016

[8]   K. Marsh and J. Brand-Miller, “Glycemic Index, Obesity, and Chronic Disease,” American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2008, pp. 142-150.

[9]   L. M. Aston, J. M. Gambell, D. M. Lee, S. P. Bryant and S. A. Jebb, “Determination of the Glycaemic Index of Various Staple Carbohydrate-Rich Foods in the UK Diet,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 62, No. 2, 2008, pp. 279-285.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602723

[10]   E. S. Omoregie and A. U. Osagie, “Glycemic Indices and Glycemic Load of Some Nigerian Foods,” Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 7, No. 5, 2008, pp. 710-716.

[11]   AOAC, “Official Methods of Analysis,” 13th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC, 1983, pp. 755-800.

[12]   T. M. S. Wolever, “The Glycaemic Index: A Physiological Classification of Dietary Carbohydrate,” Biddles Ltd, King’s Lynn Ed, UK, 2006, p. 227.

[13]   FAO/WHO, “Carbohydrates in Human Nutrition,” FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 66, Report of an FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Carbohydrates, 14-18 April 1997, Food and Nutrition Paper, FAO, Rome, 1998, 140 p.

[14]   F. Brouns, I. Bjorck, K. N. Frayn, A. L. Gibbs, V. Lang, G. Slama and T. M. S. Wolever, “Glycaemic Index Methodology,” Nutrition Research Reviews, Vol. 18, No. 1, 2005, pp. 145-171.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/NRR2005100

[15]   J. Brand-Miller, T. M. S. Wolever, K. Foster-Powell and S. Colagiuri, “The New Glucose Revolution: The Authoritative Guide to the Glycemic Index,” Marlowe and Company, New York, 2003.

[16]   J. Salmeron, J. E. Manson, M. J. Stampfer, G. A. Colditz, A. L. Wing and W. C. Willett, “Dietary Fiber, Glycaemic Load, and Risk of Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus in Women,” JAMA, Vol. 277, No. 6, 1997, pp. 472477.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1997.03540300040031

[17]   S. F. Atkinson, K. Foster-Powell and J. C. Brand-Miller, “International Tables of Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Values: 2008,” Diabetes Care, Vol. 31, No. 12, 2008, pp. 2281-2283.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc08-1239

[18]   B. J. Venn and T. J. Green, “Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load: Measurement Issues and Their Effect on DietDisease Relationships,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 61, Suppl. 1, 2007, pp. S122-S131.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602942

[19]   American Diabetes Association, “Nutrition Recommendation and Interventions for Diabetes: A Position Statement of ADA,” Diabetes Care, Vol. 31, 2008, pp S561S578.

[20]   A. Grimaldi, “Guide Pratique du Diabète,” éd. Spéciale, Paris, 1998, pp. 39-49.

[21]   A. Nientao, S. Besancon and D. Béran, “Etude de l’Index Glycémique des Principales Céréales Consommées au Mali: Mil, riz, fonio, Sorgho et Mais par Rapport au Pain Blanc (Aliment de Référence),” Rapport final d’activité, Phase 1 Axe 1-Activité 3. Projet SDM (Santé diabète Mali), ONG Appui au Développement, Santé Diabète Mali (SDM), 2006, 25 p.

[22]   D. S. Ludwig, “The Glycemic Index: Physiological Mechanisms Relating to Obesity, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease,” JAMA, Vol. 287, No. 18, 2002, pp. 24142423.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.287.18.2414

[23]   J. C. Brand-Miller, S. H. A. Holt, D. B. Pawlak and J. McMillan, “Glycemic Index and Obesity,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 76, No. 1, 2002, pp. 281S285S.

[24]   T. M. S. Wolever, L. Katzman-Relle, A. L. Jenkins, V. Vuksan, R. B. Josse and D. J. Jenkins, “Glycaemic Index of 102 Complex Carbohydrate Foods in Patients with Diabetes,” Nutrition Research, Vol. 14, No. 5, 1994, pp. 651-669.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0271-5317(05)80201-5

[25]   K. Y. Lok, R. Chan, D. Chan, L. Li, G. Leung, J. Woo, H. J. Lightowler and C. J. K. Henry, “Glycaemic Index and Glycaemic Load Values of a Selection of Popular Foods Consumed in Hong Kong,” British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 103, No. 4, 2010, pp. 556-560.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114509992042

[26]   Mendosa R, “Revised International Table of Glycemic Index (GI) and Glycemic Load (GL) Values-2008,” 2008, 127 p. http://www.mendosa.com/gilists.htm

 
 
Top