FNS  Vol.5 No.4 , February 2014
Antioxidant Capacities and Main Reducing Substance Contents in 110 Fruits and Vegetables Eaten in China
Abstract: The aim of this study was to screen strongly-antioxidant fruits and vegetables and supply practical diet guidance for the public. We used 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), 2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) and total reducing power (TRP) assays to investigate antioxidant activities in 110 fruits and vegetables. To analyze the correlation between antioxidant capacities and main reducing substance contents, total phenolic, flavonoid and vitamin C contents were assessed. The results showed great variation in antioxidant activity, and fifteen fruits and vegetables possessed the strongest antioxidant capacities: Toona sinensis, hawthorn, jujube, lotus root, persimmon, red plum, black plum, chilli pepper, star fruit, strawberry, blueberry, cherry, peach, pomegranate and great burdock. Total phenolic contents showed higher correlation with antioxidant capacity when using FRAP and TRP assays than when using the DPPH or ABTS assay. Phenolics and flavonoids, rather than vitamin C, contributed to antioxidant potential in most fruits and vegetables.
Cite this paper: C. Liu, Y. Zhao, X. Li, J. Jia, Y. Chen and Z. Hua, "Antioxidant Capacities and Main Reducing Substance Contents in 110 Fruits and Vegetables Eaten in China," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 5 No. 4, 2014, pp. 293-307. doi: 10.4236/fns.2014.54036.

[1]   I. S. Young and J. V. Woodside, “Antioxidants in Health and Disease,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, Vol. 54, No. 3, 2001, pp. 176-186.

[2]   O. A. Azizova, “Role of Free Radical Processes in the Development of Atherosclerosis,” Biologicheskie Membrany, Vol. 19, No. 6, 2002, pp. 451-471.

[3]   L. Fu, B.-T. Xu, X.-R. Xu, R.-Y. Gan, Y. Zhang, E.-Q. Xia and H.-B. Li, “Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents of 62 Fruits,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 129, No. 2, 2011, pp. 345-350.

[4]   G. Block, B. Patterson and A. Subar, “Fruit, Vegetables, and Cancer Prevention: A Review of the Epidemiological Evidence,” Nutrition and Cancer, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1992, pp. 1-29.

[5]   G. G. Duthie, S. J. Duthie and J. A. M. Kyle, “Plant Polyphenols in Cancer and Heart Disease: Implications as Nutritional Antioxidants,” Nutrition Research Reviews, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2000, pp. 79-106.

[6]   W. R. Leifert and M. Y. Abeywardena, “Cardioprotective Actions of Grape Polyphenols,” Nutrition Research, Vol. 28, No. 11, 2008, pp. 729-737.

[7]   M. Leja, A. Mareczek and J. Ben, “Antioxidant Properties of Two Apple Cultivars during Long-Term Storage,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 80, No. 3, 2003, pp. 303-307.

[8]   S. B. Lotito and B. Frei, “Consumption of FlavonoidRich Foods and Increased Plasma Antioxidant Capacity in Humans: Cause, Consequence, or Epiphenomenon?” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Vol. 41, No. 12, 2006, pp. 1727-1746.

[9]   F. Rautenbach and I. Venter, “Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Antioxidant Capacity of Commonly Consumed South African Fruits, Vegetables, Grains, Legumes, Fats/Oils and Beverages,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 23, No. 7, 2010, pp. 753-761.

[10]   T. Stangeland, S. F. Remberg and K. A. Lye, “Total Antioxidant Activity in 35 Ugandan Fruits and Vegetables,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 113, No. 1, 2009, pp. 85-91.

[11]   N. Babbar, H. S. Oberoi, D. S. Uppal and R. T. Patil, “Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Extracts Obtained from Six Important Fruit Residues,” Food Research International, Vol. 44, No. 1, 2011, pp. 391396.

[12]   R. Govindarajan, M. Vijayakumar and P. Pushpangadan, “Antioxidant Approach to Disease Management and the Role of ‘Rasayana’ Herbs of Ayurveda,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 99, No. 2, 2005, pp. 165-178.

[13]   H. Y. Li, Z. Y. Deng, H. H. Zhu, C. L. Hu, R. H. Liu, J. C. Young and R. Tsao, “Highly Pigmented Vegetables: Anthocyanin Compositions and Their Role in Antioxidant Activities,” Food Research International, Vol. 46, No. 1, 2012, pp. 250-259.

[14]   A. Braca, N. D. Tommasi, L. D. Bari, C. Pizza, M. Politi and I. Morelli, “Antioxidant Principles from Bauhinia Terapotensis,” Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 64, No. 7, 2001, pp. 892-895.

[15]   K. Thaipong, U. Boonprakob, K. Crosby, L. CisnerosZevallos and D. H. Byrne, “Comparison of ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and ORAC Assays for Estimating Antioxidant Activity from Guava Fruit Extracts,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 19, No. 6, 2006, pp. 669-675.

[16]   I. F. F. Benzie and J. J. Strain, “The Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) as a Measure of ‘Antioxidant Power’: The FRAP Assay,” Analytical Biochemistry, Vol. 239, No. 1, 1996, pp. 70-76.

[17]   Y.-C. Chung, S.-J. Chen, C.-K. Hsu, C.-T. Chang and S.-T. Chou, “Studies on the Antioxidative Activity of Graptopetalum paraguayense E. Walther,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 91, No. 3, 2005, pp. 419-424.

[18]   F. L. Song, R. Y. Gan, Y. Zhang, Q. Xiao, L. Kuang and H. B. Li, “Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Capacities of Selected Chinese Medicinal Plants,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol. 11, No. 6, 2010, pp. 2362-2372.

[19]   Z. S. Jia, M. C. Tang and J. M. Wu, “The Determination of Flavonoid Contents in Mulberry and Their Scavenging Effects on Superoxide Radicals,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 64, No. 4, 1999, pp. 555-559.

[20]   K. L. Bajaj and G. Kaur, “Spectrophotometric Determination of L-Ascorbic Acid in Vegetables and Fruits,” The Analyst, Vol. 106, No. 1, 1981, pp. 117-120.

[21]   A. Chanwitheesuk, A. Teerawutgulrag and N. Rakariyatham, “Screening of Antioxidant Activity and Antioxidant Compounds of Some Edible Plants of Thailand,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 92, No. 3, 2005, pp. 491-497.

[22]   K. Mishra, H. Ojha and N. K. Chaudhury, “Estimation of Antiradical Properties of Antioxidant Using DPPH Assay: A Critical Review and Results,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 130, No. 4, 2012, pp. 1036-1043.

[23]   A. Floegel, D.-O. Kim, S.-J. Chung, S. I. Koo and O. K. Chun, “Comparison of ABTS/DPPH Assays to Measure Antioxidant Capacity in Popular Antioxidant-Rich US Foods,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 24, No. 7, 2011, pp. 1043-1048.

[24]   G. K. Jayaprakash, R. P. Singh and K. K. Sakariah, “Antioxidant Activity of Grape Seed (Vitis vinifera) Extracts on Peroxidation Models in Vitro,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 73, No. 3, 2001, pp. 1018-1022.

[25]   K.-J. Wang, C.-R. Yang and Y.-J. Zhang, “Phenolic Antioxidants from Chinese Toon (Fresh Young Leaves and Shoots of Toona sinensis),” Food Chemistry, Vol. 101, No. 1, 2007, pp. 365-371.

[26]   W.-J. Yu, C.-C. Chang, T.-F. Kuo, T.-C. Tsai and S.-J. Chang, “Toona sinensis Roem Leaf Extracts Improve Antioxidant Activity in the Liver of Rats under Oxidative Stress,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 50, No. 6, 2012, pp. 1860-1865.

[27]   S.-H. Jiang, C.-L. Wang, Z.-Q. Chen, M.-H. Chen, Y.-R. Wang, C.-J. Liu, Q.-L. Zhou and Z.-J. Li, “Antioxidant Properties of the Extract and Subfractions from Old Leaves of Toona sinensis Roem (Meliaceae),” Journal of Food Biochemistry, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2009, pp. 425-441.

[28]   J. Takebayashi, T. Oki, J. Watanabe, K. Yamasaki, J. B. Chen, M. Sato-Furukawa, M. Tsubota-Utsugi, K. Taku, K. Goto, T. Matsumoto and Y. Ishimi, “Hydrophilic Antioxidant Capacities of Vegetables and Fruits Commonly Consumed in Japan and Estimated Average Daily Intake of Hydrophilic Antioxidants from These Foods,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 29, No. 1, 2013, pp. 25-31.

[29]   Y.-Z. Cai, Q. Luo, M. Sun and H. Corke, “Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Compounds of 112 Traditional Chinese Medicinal Plants Associated with Anticancer,” Life Sciences, Vol. 74, No. 17, 2004, pp. 2157-2184.

[30]   N. Dasgupta and B. De, “Antioxidant Activity of Some Leafy Vegetables of India: A Comparative Study,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 101, No. 2, 2007, pp. 471-474.

[31]   M. S. M. Rufino, R. E. Alves, E. S. Brito, J. P. Jiménez, F. S. Calixto and J. M. Filho, “Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacities of 18 Non-Traditional Tropical Fruits from Brazil,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 121, No. 4, 2010, pp. 996-1022.

[32]   M. M. B. Almeida, P. H. M. Souza, A. M. C. Arriaga, G. M. P. Prado, C. E. C. Magalhaes, G. A. Maia and T. L. G. Lemos, “Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Fresh Exotic Fruits from Northeastern Brazil,” Food Research International, Vol. 44, No. 7, 2011, pp. 21552159.

[33]   P. C. Wootton-Beard and L. Ryan, “Improving Public Health?: The Role of Antioxidant-Rich Fruit and Vegetable Beverages,” Food Research International, Vol. 44, No. 10, 2011, pp. 3135-3148.