SS  Vol.5 No.2 , February 2014
Compartment Syndrome of the Leg Requiring Emergent Fasciotomy Resulting from Multi-Drug Overdose

A paucity of literature exists linking acute extremity compartment syndrome associated with cocaine or olanzapine overdose. LJ, a 38-year male, was initially seen at an outside hospital for acute encephalopathy and left lower extremity swelling shortly after cocaine and suspected olanzapine overdose. On presentation, totalcreatinine kinase levels were >1000 units/liter but quickly rose to 23,000 units/liter after 12 hours. He was transferred to a tertiary care center for surgical evaluation. Upon the exam, it was quickly determined that he had compartment syndrome and he was urgently taken to the operating room for a four-compartment lower extremity fasciotomy. Acute compartment syndrome is a limb threatening condition generally diagnosed clinically. Cocaine, a potent vasoconstrictor, is widely reported to cause rhabdomyolysis from ischemia of skeletal muscle tissue and direct toxicity to myocytes resulting in leakage of creatinine kinase. Other complications including cardiovascular, respiratory, neurological, and gastrointestinal disturbances have also been well documented. Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, has also been reported to cause rhabdomyolysis. However, myositis with lower extremity compartment syndrome is a rare occurrence and requires quick diagnosis and aggressive treatment in order to achieve limb salvage. The potential causality of compartment syndrome from either cocaine, olanzapine, or both will be examined in this case report.

Cite this paper
C. Srivilasa, J. Shupp and A. Shiflett, "Compartment Syndrome of the Leg Requiring Emergent Fasciotomy Resulting from Multi-Drug Overdose," Surgical Science, Vol. 5 No. 2, 2014, pp. 39-42. doi: 10.4236/ss.2014.52009.

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