AAR  Vol.3 No.1 , February 2014
Aging and the primary cosmetic nasal surgery
ABSTRACT

Purpose: The main goal of this article is to review the literature of general health and nasal anatomical-physiological profile of the elderly, prior to considering them as a candidate for primary cosmetic rhinoplasty (PCR). Rhinoplasty is the cosmetic nose’s surgical alteration. Materials and Methods: We extracted the information from internet search engines and the End Note software version X7. Criteria were applied to the most appropriate clinical messages related to the elderly. We focused on their general health status and their nasal anatomicalphysiological considerations prior to consider them for undergoing PCR. Research links were mostly from the Pub Med and the Medline databases. Results: the literature review showed that as people age, their health status and anatomical-physiological components of their nose alter. Their nasal anatomical supports get weaker, and their nasal internal and external physiology undergoes modifications. Functions related to the nasal supports, normal physiology of smell, airway passage, humidification mechanism and their general appearances are affected by age. Conclusion: Cosmetic surgeons must be aware of the aforementioned changes of the patients’ past and present health. Considering performing a complete systemic evaluation and the nasal anatomical-physical examination to assess the degrees of alterations, are crucial pre-operatively.


Cite this paper
Shemshadi, H. and Sahaf, R. (2014) Aging and the primary cosmetic nasal surgery. Advances in Aging Research, 3, 25-26. doi: 10.4236/aar.2014.31005.
References
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[2]   Winkler, A.A. and Downs, B.W. (2008) Aging male rhinoplasty. Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America, 16, 329-335.

[3]   Sahin-Yilmaz, A.A. and Corey, J.P. (2007) Rhinitis in the elderly. Clinical Allergy and Immunology, 19, 209-219.

[4]   Rohrich, R.J. and Hollier, L.H. (1999) Rhinoplasty with advancing age: Characteristics and management. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America, 32, 755-773.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0030-6665(05)70168-7

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.mlg.0000248240.72296.b9

[6]   Rohrich, R.J., Hollier Jr., L.H., Janis, J.E. and Kim, J. (2004) Rhinoplasty with advancing age. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 114, 1936-1944.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.PRS.0000143308.48146.0A

[7]   Friedman, O. (2006) Facelift surgery. Facial Plastic Surgery: FPS, 22, 120-128.

[8]   Rainsbury, J.W. (2010) The place of rhinoplasty in the ageing face. The Journal of Laryngology and Otology, 124, 115-118.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022215109990892

[9]   Sezgin, B., Findikcioglu, K., Kaya, B., Sibar, S. and Yavuzer, R. (2012) Mirror on the wall: A study of women’s perception of facial features as they age. Aesthetic Surgery Journal/The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 32, 421-425.

[10]   American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Milner-Fenwick Inc. (1996) Rhinoplasty [videorecording]. Timonium, Mdu., Milner-Fenwick.

[11]   Pacifico, M.D. and Ritz, M. (2010) Correction of senile drooling using the nasolabial sling. Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS, 63, 757-762.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2009.01.061

[12]   Ries, W.R. and Rathfoot, C.J. (1996) The aging nose in rhinoplasty for facial rejuvenation. Facial Plastic Surgery: FPS, 12, 197-203.

[13]   Matros, E., Momoh, A. and Yaremchuk, M.J. (2009) The aging midfacial skeleton: Implications for rejuvenation and reconstruction using implants. Facial Plastic Surgery: FPS, 25, 252-259.

[14]   Bom, A.T. and Pinto, A.M. (2009) Allergic respiratory diseases in the elderly. Respiratory Medicine, 103, 16141622. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2009.06.003

[15]   Bozek, A., Krajewska, J. and Jarzab, J. (2011) Nasal nitric oxide and other diagnostic procedures in seasonal allergic rhinitis: Elderly vs juvenile patients. American Journal of Otolaryngology, 32, 105-108.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjoto.2009.11.002

[16]   Slavin, R.G. (2010) Special considerations in treatment of allergic rhinitis in the elderly: Role of intranasal corticosteroids. Allergy and Asthma Proceedings: The Official Journal of Regional and State Allergy Societies, 31, 179184.

[17]   Yong, T.Y., Lau, S.Y., Li, J.Y., Hakendorf, P. and Thompson C.H. (2012) Medication prescription among elderly patients admitted through an acute assessment unit. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, 12, 93-101.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1447-0594.2011.00737.x

[18]   Venturini, C.D., Engroff, P., Ely, L.S., Zago, L.F., Schroeter, G., Gomes, I., et al. (2011) Gender differences, polypharmacy, and potential pharmacological interactions in the elderly. Clinics, 66, 1867-1872.

[19]   Ventura, M.T., Gelardi, M., D’Amato, A., Buquicchio, R., Tummolo, R., Misciagna, G., et al. (2012) Clinical and cytologic characteristics of allergic rhinitis in elderly patients. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology: Official Publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology, 108, 141-144.

[20]   Grossman, J. and Gates, D. (2010) Mometasone furoate nasal spray for the treatment of elderly patients with perennial allergic rhinitis. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology: Official Publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology, 104, 452-453.

[21]   Busse, P.J. and Kilaru, K. (2009) Complexities of diagnosis and treatment of allergic respiratory disease in the elderly. Drugs & Aging, 26, 1-22.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/0002512-200926010-00001

[22]   Smith, A.M., Villareal, M., Bernstein, D.I. and Swikert, D.J. (2012) Asthma in the elderly: Risk factors and impact on physical function. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology: Official Publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology, 108, 305-310.

[23]   Shumrick, K.A., Campbell, A. and Becker, F. (1999) Nasal reconstruction in the elderly patient. The case for not letting age determine the method. Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery, 1, 297-301.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archfaci.1.4.297

[24]   Cronin, J., Livhits, M., Mercado, C., Chen, F., Foster, N, Chandler, C., et al. (2011) Quality improvement pilot program for vulnerable elderly surgical patients. The American Surgeon, 77, 1305-1308.

[25]   Gadsby, R., Galloway, M., Barker, P. and Sinclair, A. (2012) Prescribed medicines for elderly frail people with diabetes resident in nursing homes-issues of polypharmacy and medication costs. Diabetic Medicine: A Journal of the British Diabetic Association, 29, 136-139.

[26]   Zakrzewski-Jakubiak, H., Doan, J., Lamoureux, P., Singh, D., Turgeon, J. and Tannenbaum, C. (2011) Detection and prevention of drug-drug interactions in the hospitalized elderly: Utility of new cytochrome p450-based software. The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, 9, 461-470. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjopharm.2011.09.006

[27]   Wehling, M. (2012) Medication in the elderly: Cognitive impairment by drugs. Internist (Berlin), 53, 1240-1247.

[28]   Walder, A. and Greil, W. (2011) Adverse effects of treatment with psychotropic drugs in the elderly—Special risks, protective mechanisms, prognosis. Praxis, 100, 15291532.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/1661-8157/a000749

[29]   Catic, A.G. (2011) Identification and management of in-hospital drug-induced delirium in older patients. Drugs & Aging, 28, 737-748.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/11592240-000000000-00000

[30]   Liu, C.L., Peng, L.N., Chen, Y.T., Lin, M.H., Liu, L.K. and Chen, L.K. (2012) Potentially inappropriate prescribing (IP) for elderly medical inpatients in Taiwan: A hospital-based study. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 55, 148-151.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2011.07.001

[31]   Shemshadi, H., Azimian, M., Onsori, M.A. and Azizabadi Farahani, M. (2008) Olfactory function following open rhinoplasty: A 6-month follow-up study. BMC Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders, 8, 6.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6815-8-6

[32]   Zijlker, T.D. and Quaedvlieg, P.C. (1994) Lateral augmentation of the middle third of the nose with autologous cartilage in nasal valve insufficiency. Rhinology, 32, 3441.

[33]   Winkler, A.A. and Downs, B.W. (2008) Aging male rhinoplasty. Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America, 16, 329-335.

[34]   Sahin-Yilmaz, A.A. and Corey, J.P. (2007) Rhinitis in the elderly. Clinical Allergy and Immunology, 19, 209-219.

[35]   Rohrich, R.J. and Hollier, L.H. (1999) Rhinoplasty with advancing age: Characteristics and management. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America, 32, 755-773.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0030-6665(05)70168-7

[36]   Cochran, C.S., Ducic, Y. and DeFatta, R.J. (2007) Restorative rhinoplasty in the aging patient. The Laryngoscope, 117, 803-807.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.mlg.0000248240.72296.b9

[37]   Rohrich, R.J., Hollier Jr., L.H., Janis, J.E. and Kim, J. (2004) Rhinoplasty with advancing age. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 114, 1936-1944.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.PRS.0000143308.48146.0A

[38]   Friedman, O. (2006) Facelift surgery. Facial Plastic Surgery: FPS, 22, 120-128.

[39]   Rainsbury, J.W. (2010) The place of rhinoplasty in the ageing face. The Journal of Laryngology and Otology, 124, 115-118.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022215109990892

[40]   Sezgin, B., Findikcioglu, K., Kaya, B., Sibar, S. and Yavuzer, R. (2012) Mirror on the wall: A study of women’s perception of facial features as they age. Aesthetic Surgery Journal/The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 32, 421-425.

[41]   American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Milner-Fenwick Inc. (1996) Rhinoplasty [videorecording]. Timonium, Mdu., Milner-Fenwick.

[42]   Pacifico, M.D. and Ritz, M. (2010) Correction of senile drooling using the nasolabial sling. Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS, 63, 757-762.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2009.01.061

[43]   Ries, W.R. and Rathfoot, C.J. (1996) The aging nose in rhinoplasty for facial rejuvenation. Facial Plastic Surgery: FPS, 12, 197-203.

[44]   Matros, E., Momoh, A. and Yaremchuk, M.J. (2009) The aging midfacial skeleton: Implications for rejuvenation and reconstruction using implants. Facial Plastic Surgery: FPS, 25, 252-259.

[45]   Bom, A.T. and Pinto, A.M. (2009) Allergic respiratory diseases in the elderly. Respiratory Medicine, 103, 16141622. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2009.06.003

[46]   Bozek, A., Krajewska, J. and Jarzab, J. (2011) Nasal nitric oxide and other diagnostic procedures in seasonal allergic rhinitis: Elderly vs juvenile patients. American Journal of Otolaryngology, 32, 105-108.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjoto.2009.11.002

[47]   Slavin, R.G. (2010) Special considerations in treatment of allergic rhinitis in the elderly: Role of intranasal corticosteroids. Allergy and Asthma Proceedings: The Official Journal of Regional and State Allergy Societies, 31, 179184.

[48]   Yong, T.Y., Lau, S.Y., Li, J.Y., Hakendorf, P. and Thompson C.H. (2012) Medication prescription among elderly patients admitted through an acute assessment unit. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, 12, 93-101.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1447-0594.2011.00737.x

[49]   Venturini, C.D., Engroff, P., Ely, L.S., Zago, L.F., Schroeter, G., Gomes, I., et al. (2011) Gender differences, polypharmacy, and potential pharmacological interactions in the elderly. Clinics, 66, 1867-1872.

[50]   Ventura, M.T., Gelardi, M., D’Amato, A., Buquicchio, R., Tummolo, R., Misciagna, G., et al. (2012) Clinical and cytologic characteristics of allergic rhinitis in elderly patients. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology: Official Publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology, 108, 141-144.

[51]   Grossman, J. and Gates, D. (2010) Mometasone furoate nasal spray for the treatment of elderly patients with perennial allergic rhinitis. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology: Official Publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology, 104, 452-453.

[52]   Busse, P.J. and Kilaru, K. (2009) Complexities of diagnosis and treatment of allergic respiratory disease in the elderly. Drugs & Aging, 26, 1-22.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/0002512-200926010-00001

[53]   Smith, A.M., Villareal, M., Bernstein, D.I. and Swikert, D.J. (2012) Asthma in the elderly: Risk factors and impact on physical function. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology: Official Publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology, 108, 305-310.

[54]   Shumrick, K.A., Campbell, A. and Becker, F. (1999) Nasal reconstruction in the elderly patient. The case for not letting age determine the method. Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery, 1, 297-301.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archfaci.1.4.297

[55]   Cronin, J., Livhits, M., Mercado, C., Chen, F., Foster, N, Chandler, C., et al. (2011) Quality improvement pilot program for vulnerable elderly surgical patients. The American Surgeon, 77, 1305-1308.

[56]   Gadsby, R., Galloway, M., Barker, P. and Sinclair, A. (2012) Prescribed medicines for elderly frail people with diabetes resident in nursing homes-issues of polypharmacy and medication costs. Diabetic Medicine: A Journal of the British Diabetic Association, 29, 136-139.

[57]   Zakrzewski-Jakubiak, H., Doan, J., Lamoureux, P., Singh, D., Turgeon, J. and Tannenbaum, C. (2011) Detection and prevention of drug-drug interactions in the hospitalized elderly: Utility of new cytochrome p450-based software. The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, 9, 461-470. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjopharm.2011.09.006

[58]   Wehling, M. (2012) Medication in the elderly: Cognitive impairment by drugs. Internist (Berlin), 53, 1240-1247.

[59]   Walder, A. and Greil, W. (2011) Adverse effects of treatment with psychotropic drugs in the elderly—Special risks, protective mechanisms, prognosis. Praxis, 100, 15291532.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/1661-8157/a000749

[60]   Catic, A.G. (2011) Identification and management of in-hospital drug-induced delirium in older patients. Drugs & Aging, 28, 737-748.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/11592240-000000000-00000

[61]   Liu, C.L., Peng, L.N., Chen, Y.T., Lin, M.H., Liu, L.K. and Chen, L.K. (2012) Potentially inappropriate prescribing (IP) for elderly medical inpatients in Taiwan: A hospital-based study. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 55, 148-151.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2011.07.001

[62]   Shemshadi, H., Azimian, M., Onsori, M.A. and Azizabadi Farahani, M. (2008) Olfactory function following open rhinoplasty: A 6-month follow-up study. BMC Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders, 8, 6.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6815-8-6

 
 
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