AAR  Vol.3 No.1 , February 2014
Depression among elderly living in Briddashram (old age home)
Author(s) Hom Nath Chalise
ABSTRACT

Introduction: Depression is a common public health issue with the increasing life expectancy worldwide and depression is associated with morbidity as well as disability among the elderly. There are very few studies related with depression among elderly from developing countries. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of depression and its correlates among the elderly living in Briddashram (old age home). Methods: This is a cross-sectional study carried out in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interview using short version of Geriatric Depression Scale. The data were analyzed using percentage, mean, simple correlation and regression. Results: The subjects (N = 185) were elderly aged 60 years and above living in Devghat area, Nepal. Mean age of the subjects was 73.67 (±3.23) years old and 51% were male. 94% elderly belong to Khas ethnicity. Nearly one third (31%) elderly were from nuclear family back ground, 25% were married, and only 18% elderly were literate. Majority of the elderly (93%) had health problems and self reported health shows 86% elderly reported their health fair. This study shows mean functional disability score was 2.53 (±2.05). Finding shows the prevalence of depression was 57.8%. Among them 46.7% had mild, 8.9% had moderate and 2.2% had severe depression. A statistically significant correlation was found between feelings of depression and age, sex, previous family type, ethnicity, feeling of loneliness and instrumental activities of daily living. Regression analysis shows that being women, feeling of loneliness and higher the dependency in IADL were predictors of depression. Conclusion: This study indicates that many elderly living in the Briddashram are suffering from depression. There should be some interruption from the concerned authorities so that depression can be reduced which will support to the well-being and quality of life of elderly.


Cite this paper
Chalise, H. (2014) Depression among elderly living in Briddashram (old age home). Advances in Aging Research, 3, 6-11. doi: 10.4236/aar.2014.31002.
References
[1]   Dhara, R.D. and Jogsan, Y.A. (2013) Depression and psychological well-being in old age. Journal of Psychology & Psychotherapy, 3, 117.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2161-0487.1000117

[2]   World Health Organization (WHO) (2005). World Health Report, 2005.
http://www.who.int/whr/2005/annexes-en.pdf

[3]   Sherina, M.S., Rampal, L. and Mustaqim, A. (2004). The prevalence of depression among the elderly in Sepang, Selangor. Medical Journal of Malaysia, 59, 45-49.

[4]   Chi, I., et al. (2005). Prevalence of depression and its correlates in Hong Kong’s Chinese older adults. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 13, 409-416.

[5]   Tsai, Y.F., Yeh, S.H. and Tsai, H.H. (2005). Prevalence and risk factors for depressive symptoms among community-dwelling elders in Taiwan. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20, 1097-1102.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.1413

[6]   Khattri, J.B. and Nepal, M.K. (2006). Study of depression among geriatric population in Nepal. Nepal Medical College Journal, 8, 220-223.

[7]   Weyerer, S., Mann, A.H. and Ames, D. (1995) Prevalence of depression and dementia in residents of old age homes in Mannheim and Camden (London). Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie, 28, 169-178.

[8]   Tam, C.W.C. and Chiu, H.F.K. (2011) Depression and suicide in the elderly. The Hong Kong Medial Diary, Medical Bulletin, 16, 13-15.

[9]   Steffens, D.C., Skoog, I., Norton, M.C., Hart, A.D., Tschanz, J.T., Plassman, B.L., Wyse, B.W., Welsh-Bohmer, K.A. and Breitner, J.C.S. (2000) Prevalence of depression and its treatment in an elderly population: The Cache Country Study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 601-607. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.57.6.601

[10]   Serby, M. and Yu, M. (2003) Overview: Depression in the elderly. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 70, 38-44.

[11]   Langa, K.M., Valenstein, M.A., Fendrick, A.M., et al. (2004) Extent and cost of informal caregiving for older Americans with symptoms of depression. American Journal of Psychology, 161, 857-863.

[12]   Penninx, B.W.J.H., Leveille, S., Ferrucci, L., et al. (1999) Exploring the effect of depression on physical disability: Longitudinal evidence from the established populations for epidemiologic studies of the elderly. American Journal of Public Health, 89, 1346-1352.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.89.9.1346

[13]   Katon, W.J. (2008) The comorbidity of diabetes mellitus and depression. The American Journal of Medicine, 121, S8-S15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2008.09.008

[14]   Worley, H. (2006) Depression: A leading contributor to global burden of disease. www.prb.com
http://www.coa.gov.ph/gad/articles/depression_062006.htm

[15]   Williams, R.A. and Strasser, P.B. (1999) Depression in the work place. Impact on employees. AAOHN Journal, 47, 526-537.

[16]   Chalise, H.N., Saito, T., Takahashi, M. and Kai, I. (2007) Relationship specialization amongst sources and receivers of social support and its correlations with loneliness and subjective well-being: A cross-sectional study of Nepalese older adults. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 44, 299-314.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2006.07.001

[17]   Sheikh, J.I. and Yesavage, J.A. (1986) Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS): Recent evidence and development of a shorter version. Clinical Gerontology, 5, 165-173.

[18]   Yesavage, J., Brink, T., Rose, T., et al. (1983) Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17, 37-49.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3956(82)90033-4

[19]   van Marwijk, H.W., Wallace, P, de Bock, G.H., Hermans, J., Kaptein, A.A. and Mulder, J.D. (1995) Evaluation of the feasibility, reliability and diagnostic value of shortened versions of the geriatric depression scale. British Journal of General Practice, 45, 195-199.

[20]   Lawton, M.P. and Brody, E.M. (1969) Assessment of older people: self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. Gerontologist, 9, 179-186.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/9.3_Part_1.179

[21]   Chalise, H.N., Saito, T. and Kai, I. (2008) Situation of functional disability in activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living among Nepalese Newar elderly. Public Health, 122, 394-396.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2007.07.015

[22]   Chalise, H.N., Saito, T. and Kai, I. (2010) Social support and its correlation with loneliness: A cross-cultural study of Nepalese older adults. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 71, 115-137.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/AG.71.2.b

[23]   Narkhede, V., Likhar, S. and Rana, A. (2012) A study on depression in elderly inmates living in old age homes in Gujarat. Indian Journal of Research and Reports in Medical Sciences, 2, 21-23.

[24]   Sethi, V., Verma, V. and Singh, U. (2013) Impact of ageing on depression and activities of daily livings in normal elderly subjects living in old age homes and communities of Kanpr, U.P. International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sciences, 2, 243-249.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/j.2319-5886.2.2.028

[25]   Imran, A., Azidah, A.K., Asrenee, A.R. and Rosediani, M. (2009) Prevalence of depression and its associated factors among elderly patients in outpatient clinic of Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital. Medical Journal of Malaysia, 64, 134-139.

[26]   Biderman, A., Cwikel, J., Fried, A.V. and Galinsky, D. (2002) Depression and falls among community dwelling elderly people: A search for common risk factors. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 56, 631-636.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.56.8.631

[27]   Penninx, B.W.J.H., Guralnik, J.M., Ferrucci, L., Simonsick, E.M., Deeg, D.J.H. and Wallace, R.B. (1998) Depressive symptoms and physical decline in communitydwelling older persons. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 279, 1720-1726.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.279.21.1720

[28]   Penninx, B.W.J.H., Deeg, D.J.H., van Eijk, J.T.M., et al. (2000) Changes in depression and physical decline in older adults: A longitudinal perspective. Journal of Affective Disorders, 61, 1-12.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0327(00)00152-X

[29]   Maulik, S. and Dasgupta, A. (2012) Depression and its determinants in the rural elderly of West Bengal—A cross sectional study. International Journal of Biological and Medical Research, 3, 1299-1302.

[30]   Taqui, A.M., Itrat, A., Qidwai, W. and Qadri, Z. (2007) Depression in the elderly: Does family system play a role? A cross-sectional study. BMC Psychiatry, 7, 57.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-7-57

[31]   Ariyo, A.A., Hann, M., Tangen, C.M., et al. (2000) Depressive symptoms and risks of coronary heart disease and mortality in elderly Americans. Circulation, 102, 1773-1779.

[32]   Singh, A. and Misra, N. (2009) Loneliness, depression and sociability in old age. Industrial Psychiatry Journal, 18, 51-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-6748.57861

[33]   Mohanth, N. and Begum, F.A. (2011) Geriateric depression, loneliness and psychological well-being: Roll of age and gender. Indian Journal of Psychology and Mental Health, 5, 53-61.

 
 
Top