Purpose of this study was to evaluate the variation of the dose to gross tumor volume (GTV) related to tumor position and lung density for lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) using a virtual phantom. The density of the equivalent lung surrounding the GTV (10 mm diameter) was defined as 0.10, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35, and 0.45 g/cm3. A planning target volume (PTV) was generated by adding a uniform 8 mm margin to the internal target volume (ITV). We defined that the 99% of the GTV should be covered by 100% of the prescribed dose using Monte Carlo (MC) calculation. The GTV structure was replicated from ITV to the PTV periphery at 1 mm intervals. Planned dose to the GTV was defined as the predicted dose in the replicated GTV structure. Simulated dose to the GTV was defined as the calculated dose in the replicated GTV structure taking into account the tumor position error. D99 of the planned dose to the GTV at the 8 mm shift position was 78.1%, 81.6%, 87.3%, 91.4% and 94.4% at equivalent lung densities of 0.10, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35, and 0.45 g/cm3, respectively. D99 of the simulated dose to the GTV at the 8 mm shift position was 96.9%, 95.3%, 94.2%, 95.1 % and 96.3% at equivalent lung densities of 0.10, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35, and 0.45 g/cm3, respectively. Planned dose to GTV is strongly dependent on lung density and tumor position errors, while simulated dose to GTV does not show any significant dependence.
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