AS  Vol.5 No.2 , February 2014
Preliminary evaluation of resistance genes in rice against bacterial leaf blight in Guilan Province—Iran

The reactions of rice bacterial leaf blight races were identified in Guilan province—Iran on 12 near-isogenic lines and 14 pyramiding lines from International Network for Genetic Evaluation of rice (INGER) and 8 local and improved Iranian varieties were evaluated under natural photoperiod condition in the field. Inoculation was done at panicle initiation by clipping the sterilized scissors in the bacterial suspension to booting stage. Scoring of inoculated plants was made 21 days after inoculation. Infection levels of pyramiding lines containing two to five resistance genes, expect, IRBB53 and IRBB61 with respectively resistance gene combination, Xa5 + Xa13 and Xa4 + Xa5 + Xa7, were not so clear. Among near-isogenic lines IRBB1, IRBB2, IRBB4 and IRBB10 carrying resistance gene Xa1, Xa2, Xa4 and Xa10 were susceptible; IRBB8, IRBB11, IRBB3, IRBB5 and IRBB13 were moderately susceptible; (having resistance gene Xa8, Xa11, Xa3, Xa5 and Xa13) IRBB14, IRBB21 and IRBB7 with respectively resistance gene Xa14, Xa21 and Xa7 were moderately resistance to bacterial blight. Furthermore, most of the time gene combinations support the strategy of pyramiding appropriate resistance gene. Local varieties were more susceptible than improved varieties to leaf blight disease. Among local varieties, Tarom was the most susceptible. And also, there were no significant differences among improved varieties and all of them were moderately resistance.

Cite this paper: Khoshkdaman, M. , Ebadi, A. , Majidi-Shilsar, F. and Dariush, S. (2014) Preliminary evaluation of resistance genes in rice against bacterial leaf blight in Guilan Province—Iran. Agricultural Sciences, 5, 94-98. doi: 10.4236/as.2014.52012.

[1]   Swings, J., Vander Mooter, M., Vauterin, L., Hoste, B., Gillis, M., Mew, T.W. and Kersteres, K. (1990) Reclassification of the causal agents of bacterial blight (Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzicola) of rice as pathovars of Xanthomonas oryzae (ex Ishiyama, 1922) sp. nov. nom, rev. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 40, 309-311.

[2]   Niño-Liu, D.O., Ronald, P.C. and Bogdanove, A.J. (2006) Xanthomonas oryzae pathovars: Model pathogens of a model crop. Molecular Plant Pathology, 7, 303-324.

[3]   Mew, T.W. (1987) Current status and future prospects of research on bacterial blight of rice. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 25, 359-382.

[4]   Ou, S.H. (1985) Rice diseases. Common Wealth Mycological Institute, Kew.

[5]   Mew, T.W. and Khush, G.S. (1981) Breeding for bacterial blight resistance in rice at IRRI. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference of Plant Pathologic Bacteria, Centro International de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali (Colombia), 16-23 August 1981, 504-510.

[6]   Ronald, P.C. and Leung, H. (2002) The rice genome: The most precious things are not jade and pearls. Science, 296, 58-59.

[7]   Chen, G.Y., Zou, L.F., Wang, X.P., Xiang, Y. and Wang, J.S. (2004) Pathogenicity determinants of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae. Chinese Agricultural Sciences, 37, 1301-1307.

[8]   Yoshimura, S., Yamanouchi, U., Katayose, Y., Toki, S., Wang, Z.X., Kono, I., Kurata, N., Yano, M., Iwata, N. and Sasaki, T. (1998) Expression of Xa1, a bacterial blightresistance gene in rice is induced by bacterial inoculation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 95, 1663-1668.

[9]   Song, W.Y., Wang, G. and Chen, L.L. (1995) A receptor kinase-like protein encoded by the rice disease resistance gene Xa21. Science, 270, 1804-1806.

[10]   Anjali, S.I. and Susan, R.M. (2004) The rice bacterial blight resistance gene Xa5 encodes a novel form of disease resistance. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 17, 1348-1354.

[11]   Sun, X.L., Cao, Y.L., Yang, Z.F., Xu, C.G., Li, X.H., Wang, S.P. and Zhang, Q.F. (2004) Xa26, a gene conferring resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in rice, encodes an LRR receptor kinase-like protein. The Plant Journal, 37, 517-527.

[12]   Gu, K.Y., Yang, B., Tian, D.S., Wu, L.F., Wang, D.J., Sreekala, C., Yang, F., Chu, Z.Q., Wang, G.L., White, F.F. and Yin, Z.C. (2005) R-gene expression induced by a type-III effector triggers disease resistance in rice. Nature, 435, 1122-1125.

[13]   Hopkins, C.M., White, F.F., Choi, S.H., Guo, A. and Leach, J.E. (1992) Identification of a family of avirulence gene from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 5, 451-459.

[14]   Zhu, W., Magbanua, M.M. and White, F.F. (2000) Identification of tow novel hrp-associated genes in the hrp gene cluster of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae. Journal of Bacteriology, 182, 1844-1853.

[15]   Shen, Y., Sharma, P., da Silva, F. and Ronald, P. (2002) The Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae rax\p and raxQ genes encode an ATP sulfurylase and adenosine 5—phosphosulphate kinase that are required for AvrXa21 avirulence activity. Molecular Microbiology, 44, 37-38.

[16]   Xu, G.W. and Gonzales, C.F. (1989) Evaluation of TN4431-induced protease mutants of Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae for growth in plants and pathogenicity. Phytopathology, 79, 1210-1215.

[17]   Ray, S.K., Rajeshwari, R. and Sonti, R.V. (2000) Mutants of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae deficient in general secretory pathway are virulence deficient and unable to secrete xylanase. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 13, 394-401.

[18]   Rajeshwari, R. and Sonti, R.V. (2000) Stationary-phase variation due to transposition of novel insertion elements in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae. Journal of Bacteriology, 182, 4797-4802.

[19]   Dharmapuri, S. and Sonti, R.V. (1999) A transposon insertion in the gumG homologue of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causes loss of extracellular polysaccharide production and virulence. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 179, 53-59.

[20]   Dharmapuri, S., Yashitola, J., Vishnupriya, M.R. and Sonti, R.V. (2001) Novel genomic locus with atypical G+C content that is required for extracellular polysaccharide production and virulence in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 14, 1335-1339.

[21]   Goel, A.K., Rajagopal, L. and Sonti, R.V. (2001) Pigment and virulence deficiencies associated with mutations in the aroE gene of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 67, 245-250.

[22]   Lee, B.M., Park, Y.J., Park, D.S., et al., (2005) The genome sequence of Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar KACC-10331, the bacterial blight pathogen of rice. Nucleic Acids Research, 33, 577-586.

[23]   Yang, B., Zhu, W., Johnson, L.B. and White, F.F. (2000) The virulence factor AvrXa7 of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is a type III secretion pathway-dependent, nuclear-localized, double-stranded DNA binding protein. Proceeding of the National Academy of Science, USA, 97, 9807-9812.

[24]   Zhu, W., Yang, B., Chittoor, J.M., Johnson, L.B. and White, F.F. (1998) AvrXA10 contains an acidic transcriptional activation domain in the functionally conserved C terminus. Molecular Plant—Microbe Interactions, 11, 824-832.

[25]   Zhu, W., Yang, B., Wills, N., Johnson, L.B. and White, F.F. (1999) The C terminus of AvrXA10 can be replaced by the transcriptional activation domain of VP16 from the herpes simplex virus. The Plant cell, 11, 1665-1674.

[26]   Bai, J., Choi, S.H., Ponciano, G., Leung, H. and Leach, J.E. (2000) Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae avirulence genes contribute differently and specifically to pathogen aggressiveness. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 13, 1322-1329.

[27]   Aye, S.S., Matsumoto, M., Kaku, H., Goto, T., Furuya, N. and Yoshimura, A. (2006) Evaluation of resistance in rice plants to Myanmar isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Journal of faculty Agriculture Kyushu University, 52, 17-21.

[28]   Khoshkdaman, M., Ebady, A.A. and Kahrizi, D. (2012) Evaluation of pathogenicity and race classification of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in Guilan Province—Iran. Agricultural Science, 4, 557-561.

[29]   Fang, Z.D., Xu, Z.G., Guo, C.J., Chen, Y.L., Deng, X.R., Li, H.S. and Zhu, L.M. (1981) Variability of pathogenicity of rice bacterial leaf blight organism. Journal of Nanjing Agricultural Technology College, 1, 1-11.

[30]   Kauffman, H.E., Reddy, A.P.K., Hsieh, S.P.Y. and Merca, S.D. (1973) An improved technique for evaluating resistance of rice varieties to Xanthomonas oryzae. Plant Disease Reporter, 57, 537-541.

[31]   IRRI (1996) Standard evaluation system for rice. 4th Edition, IRRI, The Philippines.

[32]   Ardales, E.Y., Leung, H., Vera Cruz, C.M., Leach, J.E., Mew, T.W. and Nelson, R.J. (1996) Hierarchical analysis of spatial variation of the rice bacterial blight pathogen across agroecosystems in the Philippines. Phytopathology, 86, 241-252.