Adams, D. A., Nelson, R. R., & Todd, P. A. (1992). Perceived usefulness, ease of use and usage of information technology: A replication. MIS Quarterly, 16, 227-247.
 Ben-Bassat Levy, R., Ben-Ari, M., & Uronen, P. A. (2003). The Jeliot 2000 program animation system. Computers & Education, 40, 1-15.
 Boulos, M. N. K., Hetherington, L. & Wheeler, S. (2007). Second Life: an overview of the potential of 3-D virtual worlds in medical and health education, Health Information & Libraries Journal, 24, 233245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-1842.2007.00733.x
 Britzman, D. (2003). Practice makes practice: A critical study of learning to teach. New York State University: New York Press.
 Carlisle, M. C., Wilson, T. A., Humphries, J. W., & Hadfield, S. M. (2005). RAPTOR: A visual programming environment for teaching algorithmic problem solving. ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, 37, 176-180.
 Carmines, E. G., & Zeller, R. A. (1979). Reliability and validity assessment. Sage University Paper 17. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.
 Casamayor, A., Amandi, A., & Campo, M. (2009). Intelligent assistance for teachers in collaborative e-learning environments. Computers & Education, 53, 1147-1154.
 Chau, P. Y. K. (1996). An empirical assessment of a modified technology acceptance model. Journal of Management Information Systems, 13, 185-204.
 Chen, M.-P., Chiu, C.-H., & Wu C.-C. (2010). Instructional simulations for teaching high school computer science concepts: A technology acceptance perspective. IEEE International Conference on Digital Game and Intelligent Toy Enhanced Learning, 216-218.
 Dalgarno, B., Lee, M. J. W., Carlson, L, Gregory, S., & Tynan, B. (2010). 3D immersive virtual worlds in higher education: An Australian and New Zealand scoping study. Ascilite Sydney, 269-280.
 Dann, W., Cooper, S., & Pausch, R. (2000). Making the connection: programming with animated small world. ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, 32, 41-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/353519.343070
 Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology, MIS Quarterly, 13, 319340. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/249008
 Dickey, M. D. (2003). Teaching in 3D: Pedagogical affordances and constraints of 3D virtual worlds for synchronous distance learning. Distance education, 24, 105-121.
 Duch, B. J. (2001). Models for problem-based instruction in undergraduate courses. The Power of Problem-Based Learning, 39-46.
 Esteves, M., Fonseca, B., Morgado, L., & Martins, P. (2009). Using second life for problem based learning in computer science programming. Journal of Virtual Worlds Research, 2, 3-25.
 Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
 Guzdial, M., Kolodner, J. L., Hmelo, C., Narayanan, H., Carlson, D., Rappin, N., Hübscher, R., Turns, J., & Newstetter, W. (1996). Computer support for learning through complex problem-solving. Communications of the ACM, 39, 43-45.
 Girvan, C., & Savage, T. (2010). Identifying an appropriate pedagogy for virtual worlds: A communal constructivism case study. Computers & Education.
 Girvan, C., Tangney, B., & Savage, T. (2013). SLurtles: Supporting constructionist learning in Second Life. Computers & Education, 61, 115-132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.08.005
 Hadjerrouit, S. (2008). Towards a blended learning model for teaching and learning computer programming: A Case Study. Informatics in Education, 7, 181-210.
 Henderson, L., Grant, S., Henderson, M., & Huang, H. (2010). University students’ cognitive engagement while learning in a Virtual World. Australian Computers in Education Conference, 6-9 April, Melbourne.
 Hwang, W.-Y., Wang, C., Hwang, G.-J., Huang, Y.-M., & Huang, S. (2008). A web-based programming learning environment to support cognitive development. Interacting with Computers, 20, 524-534.
 Jenkins, T. (2001). The motivation of students of programming. Proceedings of ITiCSE 2001: The 6th Annual Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education (pp. 53-56). New York: ACM.
 Journal of Virtual Worlds Research (2009). Pedagogy, education and innovation in Virtual Worlds.
 Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
 Kolling, M., Quig, B., Patterson, A., & Rosenberg, J. (2003). The BlueJ system and its pedagogy. Computer Science Education, 13, 249-268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1076/csed.188.8.131.5296
 Kern, N. (2009). Starting a Second Life.
 Lister, R., & Leaney, J. (2003). First year programming: Let all the flowers bloom. Proceedings of the Fifth Australasian Conference on Computing Education (pp. 221-230). Adelaide.
 Mathieson, K. (1991). Predicting use intentions: Comparing the technology acceptance model with the theory of planned behaviour. Information Systems Research, 2, 173-191.
 Menchaca, R., Balladares, L., Quintero, R., & Carreto, C. (2005). Software engineering, HCI techniques and Java technologies joined to develop web-based 3D-collaborative virtual environments. Proceedings of the 2005 Latin American conference on Human-computer interaction (pp. 40-51). New York, NY: ACM Press.
 Miliszewska, I., & Tan, G. (2007). Befriending computer programming: a proposed approach to teaching introductory programming. Journal of Issues in Informing Science & Information Technology, 4, 277289.
 Newman, D., Griffin, P., & Cole, M. (1989). The construction zone: Working for cognitive change in school. New York: Cambridge University Press.
 Novak, T. P. (2010). eLab city: A platform for academic research on virtual worlds. Journal of Virtual Worlds Research, 3.
 Record voice chat and sounds. (2012).
 Robins, A., et al. (2003). Learning and teaching programming: A review and discussion. Computer Science Education. 13, 137-172.
 Rosenbaum, E. (2008). Scratch for second life. Proceedings of the International Conference of the Learning Sciences-ICLS, Utrecht, The Netherlands: ICLS., 144-152.
 Sajjanhar, A. (2012). Virtual worlds for student engagement. Creative Education, 3, 796-801.
 Savery, J. R. (2006). Overview of problem-based learning: Definitions and distinctions. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning, 1, 9-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.7771/1541-5015.1002
 Second life bot. (2012). http://wiki.secondlife.com/wiki/Bot.
 Sloane, K., & Linn, M. C. (1988). Instructional conditions in Pascal programming classes. In R. Mayer (Ed.), Teaching and learning computer programming: Multiple research perspectives (pp. 207-235). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
 Stamouli, I., Doyle, E., & Huggard, M. (2004). Establishing structured support for programming students. 34th Annual Conference on Frontiers in Education, 2, F2G 5-9.
 Torp, L., & Sage, S. (2002). Problems as possibilities: Problem-based learning for K-16 education (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
 Warburton, W. (2009). Second Life in higher education: Assessing the potential for and the barriers to deploying virtual worlds in learning and teaching. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40, 414-426.
 Wrzesien, M., & Raya, M. A. (2010). Learning in serious virtual worlds: Evaluation of learning effectiveness and appeal to students in the EJunior project. Computers & Education, 55, 178-187.