According to the National Statistical Service of Greece, single-parent
families, which emerged after divorce, in 2011 occupied an important place
among other family types, endangering a large number of children to display
behavioral problems and poor school performance. The purpose of the present
study was to investigate the effects of divorce on preschool children.
Specifically, we studied the behavior problems and academic performance of
children from single-parent families compared with children from nuclear
families according to teachers’ views. The research sample consisted of 314
students from various urban and suburban parts of Greece, for which their 118
preschool teachers completed the “Pupil Behavior Rating Scale” (PBRS) and a
questionnaire with demographic characteristics and data of themselves, their
students and their students’ parents. The results of the research showed
statistically significant correlations between 1) the type of family and
occurrence of behavioral problems and 2) the type of family and school performance
of the two student groups (single parenthood-nuclear). According to the
findings of the present study, it appears that the family pattern affects the
emotional development and school progress of children. For this reason, bearing
always in mind that each family is unique, they are of particular importance:
the assurance of a structured family environment (quality relationships of the
members), the regular communication with parents built upon relationships of
respect and trust, and finally, the social support and assistance of competent
institutions to single-parent families.
 Amato, P. R. (2001). Children of divorce in the 1990s: An update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis. Journal of Family Psychology, 15, 355-370. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-318.104.22.1685
 Amato, P. R., & Keith, B. (1991). Parental divorce and adult well-being: A meta-analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53, 43-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353132
 Babalis, Th. (2011). Children of single-parent families: Helping in school adaptation. Athens: Diadrassi (in Greek).
 Babalis, Th. (2013). Dimensions of social exclusion and poverty among single-parent families in Greece. In D. Daskalakis (Eds.), The Social Sciences and the Current Crisis (pp. 459-489). Athens: Papazisi (in greek).
 Babalis, Th., Tsoli, Κ., & Tsinarelis, G. (2011). Parents’ divorce and adjustment of preschool children in kindergarten. Proceedings of the European Conference OMEP 2011 on Perspectives on Creativity and Learning in Early Childhood. Cyprus (in Greek).
 Babalis, Th., Xanthakou, Y., Papa, C., & Tsolou, O. (2011). Preschool age children, divorce and adjustment: A case study in Greek kindergarten. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 9, 1403-1426.
 Bougioukos, G. (2011). The effects of economic crisis on children and their rights. In D. Daskalakis, & M. Gkivalos (Eds.), Childhood and Children's Rights (p. 130). Athens (in Greek).
 Bronfenbrenner, U. (1994). Ecological models of human development. In International Encyclopedia of Education (Vol. 3, 2nd ed.). Oxford: Elsevier.
 Clarke-Stewart, K. A., Vandell, D., McCartney, K., Owen, M., & Booth, C. (2000). Effects of parental separation and divorce on very young children. Journal of Family Psychology, 14, 304-326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-322.214.171.1244
 Epstein, J. L. (1995). School-Family-Community Partnerships: Caring for the children we share. Phi Delta Kappan, 76, 701-712.
 Eurostat (2013). Social Europe. EU employment and social situation. Quarterly review. Special supplement on demographic trends. Luxembourg: Publications office of the European Union. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KE-BH-13-0S2/EN/KE-H-13-0S2-EN.PDF
 Hetherington, E. M. (2002a). Child psychology: A contemporary viewpoint (updated 5th edition revised by R. D. Parke & V. O. Locke). New York: McGraw-Hill.
 Hetherington, E. M. (2002b). For better or for worse: Divorce reconsidered. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.
 Kauffmann, J. M. (2000). Characteristics of emotional and behavioral disorders of children and youth (7th ed.). Columbus: Merill Prentice Hall.
 Kogkidou, D. (2006). Children, parenting and society: What can we learn from single parents? In Μ. Malikiosi-Loizou, D. Sidiropoulou-Dimakou, & G. Kleftara (Eds.), Counseling Psychology in Women (pp. 136-167). Athens: Ellinika Grammata (in Greek).
 Koutrouba, K., Antonopoulou, K., & Babalis, Th. (2010). Parental involvement in secondary education schools: The views of parents in Greece. Educational Studies, 33, 1465-3200.
 Manolitsis, G., & Tafa, Ε. (2005). Checklist for detecting behavior problems in preschool age. Psychology, 12, 153-178 (in Greek).
 McMahon R. J. (2008). Parent training interventions for preschool-age children. In R. E. Tremblay, R. G. Barr, & R. DeV. Peters (Eds.), Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development (pp. 1-8). Montreal, Quebec: Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development. http://www.excellence-earlychildhood.ca/documents/McMahonRJANGxp.pdf
 Musick, K., & Meier, A. (2010). Are both parents always better than one? Parental conflict and young adult well-being. Los Angeles: California Center for Population Research. http://papers.ccpr.ucla.edu/papers/PWP-CCPR-2008-022/PWP-CCPR-2008-022.pdf
 Pliogkou, V. (2011). Which factors affect the education of children of single-parent families? From the perspective of lone parents. In proceedings of the 1st Panhellenic Conference of single-parent families on Single-parent families in modern society (pp. 72-92). Alexandroupoli: Association of single parents in the prefecture of Evros “ Support” (in Greek).
 Roll, J. (1992). Lone parent families in the European Community. The 1992 report to the European Commission. Brussels: Commission of the European Communities.
 Shim, M. K., Felner, R. D., & Shim, E. (2000). The effects of family structures on academic achievement. Proceedings of the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.
 Thomas, J. M., & Guskin, K. A. (2001). Disruptive behavior in young children: What does it mean? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 44-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200101000-00015
 Tichovolsky, M. H. (2011). Parenting and parent predictors of changes in child behavior problems. Thesis. Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Clinical Psychology.
 Τyber, E. (2011). Children after divorce. How you can help your children adapt to the new situation. Athens: Modern times (in Greek).
 Ushie, M. A., Emeka, J. O., Ononga, G. I., & Owolabi, E. O. (2012). Influence of family structure on students’ academic performance in Agege local government area, Lagos state, Nigeria. European Journal of Educational Studies, 4, 177-187.
 Uwaifo, V. O. (2012). The effects of family structure on the academic performance of Nigerian university students. Global Journal of Human Social Science, 12, 53-56.
 Wallerstein, J. S. (2003). What about the kids? Raising your children before, during and after divorce. New York: Hyperion Press.
 Wallerstein, J. S., & Kelly, J. B. (1975). The effects of parental divorce: Experiences of the preschool child. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 14, 600-616. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-7138(09)61460-6
 Wallerstein, J. S., & Lewis, J. M. (2004). The unexpected legacy of divorce. Report of a 25-year study. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 21, 353-370. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0736-97126.96.36.1993
 Xatzixristou, Χ. (2009). The separation of the parents, divorce and the children. The adjustment of children in binuclear family and school. Athens: Ellinika Grammata (in Greek).
 Xatzixristou, Χ., & Hopf, D. (1991). Behavior problems and school performance of students in primary and secondary education according to teachers’ estimates. Educational Review, 14-15, 107-143 (in Greek).
 Yan, W., & Lin, Q. (2005). Parental involvement and mathematics achievement: Contrast across racial and ethnic groups. The Journal of Educational Research, 99, 116-127. http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/JOER.99.2.116
 Zinn, B. M., Eitzen, S. D., & Wells, B. (2008). Diversity in families (8th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.