Surfactants are used for formulation metal working
fluids. These fluids are applied to the interface between a cutting tool and
the metal working piece to provide friction reduction. In the present paper, poly aromatic ammonium sulphonate and
polyaromatic benzyl triethanolamsonium ethoxylate with 6 ethylene oxide
units were synthesized and blended with coupling agent like dodecyl alcohol
and oleic acid to produce cutting fluid and evaluate as antiwear. Values of surface tension of
these additives were measured in oil phase and consequently CMC was determined
for all additives and their mixtures in oil phase. The efficiency of these additives
depends on their chemical structure and the presence of ether oxygen brings about the association of the surfactant with
metal surface, hence very good wetting properties. The antiwear characteristic
of surfactants increases with increasing polar linkages in the aromatic
moieties forming chelated and coordinated layer. This is due to the increase in the number of sites
to chemisorption on the metal surface. The films formed are highly condensed
ring aromatic layered structures. These films provide lower wear and depend on the type of surfactants concentration and
sliding speed. The surface of metal was analyzed by SEM/EDX techniques. These
studies have led to much clear evidence of the intimate relationship between
the chemical structure of the surfactants and their film forming. More
confirmation for suggested mechanism was investigated by measuring the area
occupied per molecule of the surfactant in oil phase. The results indicate that
the sulphonate group is less efficient than ethoxylate group. At the same time, the micelle of surfactants acts as oil dispersant and improves adsorption of oil on the metal
Cite this paper
N. Mehbad and A. Omar, "Development of Anti-Wear/Antioxidant Additives for High Quality Metalworking Fluid from Waste Petroleum Products," Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology
, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2014, pp. 33-40. doi: 10.4236/jsemat.2014.41006
 A. M. A. Omar, “Micellization and Adsorption of Anionic/ Nonionic Polymeric Surfactants for Metal Working Fluid at Different Interfaces,” Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, Vol. 56, No. 3, 2004, pp. 171-176.
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 A. El Sayed el Tabei, “Production of Surfactants from Petroleum by Products by Phase Transfer Catalysis for Metal Working Fluids,” Ph.D. Thesis, Ain Shams University, Cairo, 2008.
 A. M. A. Omar, “Anionic/Nonionic Collector Efficiency as Related to the CMC of the Mixture,” Afinidad, Vol. 464, 1996, pp. 262-266.