Does Life Need Water or Can It Be Generated by Other Fluids?

ABSTRACT

In the present work the Stochastic generalization of the quantum hydrodynamic analogy (SQHA) is used to obtain the far-from-equilibrium kinetics for a real gas and its fluid phase. In gases and their liquids, interacting by Lennard-Jones potentials whose mean distance is bigger than the quantum correlation distance and the molecular interaction distance r0, it is possible to define a Fokker-Plank type equation of motion as a function of the mean phase space molecular volume that far-from-equilibrium shows maximizing the dissipation of a part of the generalized SQHA-free energy. In the case of a real gas with no chemical reactions with small temperature gradients, the principle disembogues into the maximum free energy dissipation confirming the experimental outputs of electro-convective instability. In this case, the model shows that the transition to stationary states with higher free energy can happen and that in incompressible fluids, the increase of free energy is almost given by a decrease of entropy leading to the appearance of self-ordered structures. The output of the theory showing that the generation of order via energy dissipation, is more efficient in fluids than in gases, because of their incompressibility, which leads to the reconciliation between physics and biology furnishing the explanation why the life was born in water. The theoretical output also suggests that the search for life out of the earth must consider the possibility to find it in presence of liquid phases different from water.

In the present work the Stochastic generalization of the quantum hydrodynamic analogy (SQHA) is used to obtain the far-from-equilibrium kinetics for a real gas and its fluid phase. In gases and their liquids, interacting by Lennard-Jones potentials whose mean distance is bigger than the quantum correlation distance and the molecular interaction distance r0, it is possible to define a Fokker-Plank type equation of motion as a function of the mean phase space molecular volume that far-from-equilibrium shows maximizing the dissipation of a part of the generalized SQHA-free energy. In the case of a real gas with no chemical reactions with small temperature gradients, the principle disembogues into the maximum free energy dissipation confirming the experimental outputs of electro-convective instability. In this case, the model shows that the transition to stationary states with higher free energy can happen and that in incompressible fluids, the increase of free energy is almost given by a decrease of entropy leading to the appearance of self-ordered structures. The output of the theory showing that the generation of order via energy dissipation, is more efficient in fluids than in gases, because of their incompressibility, which leads to the reconciliation between physics and biology furnishing the explanation why the life was born in water. The theoretical output also suggests that the search for life out of the earth must consider the possibility to find it in presence of liquid phases different from water.

Cite this paper

P. Chiarelli, "Does Life Need Water or Can It Be Generated by Other Fluids?,"*Open Journal of Biophysics*, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2014, pp. 29-38. doi: 10.4236/ojbiphy.2014.41005.

P. Chiarelli, "Does Life Need Water or Can It Be Generated by Other Fluids?,"

References

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[2] I. Prigogine, “étude Thermodynamique des Phenomènes Irreversibles,” Desoer, Liege, 1947.

[3] B. H. Lavenda, “Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes,” Macmillan, London, 1978.

[4] M. Silhavy, “The Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Continuous Media,” Springer, Berlin, 1997, p. 209.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-03389-0_14

[5] Y. Sawada, “A Thermodynamic Variational Principle in Nonlinear Non-Equilibrium Phenomena,” Progress of Theoretical Physics, Vol. 66, No. 1, 1981, pp. 68-76.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1143/PTP.66.68

[6] W. V. R. Malkus and G. Veronis, “Finite Amplitude Cellular Convection,” Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1958, pp. 225-260.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022112058000410

[7] L. Onsager, “Reciprocal Relations in Irreversible Processes. I,” Physical Review, Vol. 37, No. 4, 1931, pp. 405- 426. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.37.405

[8] M. Suzuky and Y. Sawada, “Relative Stabilities of Metastable States of Convecting Charged-Fluid Systems by Computer Simulation,” Physical Review A, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1983, pp. 478-489.

[9] W. T. Grandy, “Entropy and the Time Evolution of Macroscopic Systems,” Oxford University Press, New York, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199546176.001.0001

[10] E. Madelung, “Quantentheorie in Hydrodynamischer Form,” Zeitschrift für Physik, Vol. 40, No. 3-4, 1926, pp. 322-326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01400372

[11] I. Bialy-nicki-Birula, M. Cieplak and J. Kaminski, “Theory of Quanta,” Oxford University Press, New York, 1992.

[12] J. H. Weiner, “Statistical Mechanics of Elasticity,” John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1983, pp. 316-317.

[13] P. Chiarelli, “Can Fluctuating Quantum States Acquire the Classical Behavior on Large Scale?” Journal of Advanced Research in Physics, Vol. 2, 2013, pp. 139-163.

[14] P. Chiarelli, “Far from Equilibrium Maximal Principle Leading to Matter Self-Organization” Journal of Advances in Chemistry, Vol. 5, No. 3, 2013, pp. 753-783.

[15] P. Chiarelli, “Quantum to Classical Transition in the Stochastic Hydrodynamic Analogy: The Explanation of the Lindemann Relation and the Analogies between the Maximum of Density at He Lambda Point and that One at Water-Ice Phase Transition,” Physical Review & Research International, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2013, pp. 348-366.

[16] Y. B. Rumer and M. S. Ryvkin, “Thermodynamics, Statistical Physics, and Kinetics,” Mir Publishers, Moscow, 1980.

[17] M. Suzuki and Y. Sawada, “Propagation Transitions of Electroconvection,” Physical Review A, Vol. 31, No. 14, 1985, pp. 2548-2555.

[18] C. P. McKay and H. D. Smith, “Possibilities for Metha-nogenic Life in Liquid Methane on the Surface of Titan,” Icarus, Vol. 178 No. 1, 2005, pp. 274-276.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2005.05.018

[19] Committee on the Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems, Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life and National Research Council, “The Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems,” The National Academies Press, Washington DC, 2007, p. 74.

[20] M. Paecht-Horowitz, J. Berger and A. Kat-chalsky, “Prebiotic Synthesis of Polypeptides by Heterogeneous Poly- condensation of Amino-Acid Adenylates,” Nature, Vol. 228, No. 5272, 1970, pp.636-639.

[21] A. Katchalsky and P. F. Curran, “Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics in Biophysics,” Harvard University Press Cambridge, 1965.

[22] A. S. Perelson, “Network Thermodynamics,” Biophysical Journal, Vol. 15, No. 7, 1975, pp. 667-685.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3495(75)85847-4

[23] R. Shapiro, “Origins: A Skeptic’s Guide to the Creation of Life on Earth,” Bantam Books, 1987, p. 110.

[24] C. Menor-Salván, D. M. Ruiz-Bermejo, M. I. Guzmán, S. Osuna-Esteban and S. Veintemillas-Verdaguer, “Synthesis of Pyrimidines and Triazines in Ice: Implications for the Prebiotic Chemistry of Nucleobases,” Chemistry, Vol. 15, No. 17, 2007, pp. 4411-4418.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.200802656

[25] P. Chiarelli and D. De Rossi, “Polyelectrolyte Intelligent Gels: Design and Application,” In A. Ciferri and A. Perico, Eds., Ionic interactions in Natural and Synthetic Molecules, John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Chichester, 2012, pp. 602-604.

[1] I. Prigogine, “Moderation et Transformations Irreversibles des Systemes Ouverts,” Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences, Academie Royale de Belgique, Vol. 31, 1945, pp. 600-606.

[2] I. Prigogine, “étude Thermodynamique des Phenomènes Irreversibles,” Desoer, Liege, 1947.

[3] B. H. Lavenda, “Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes,” Macmillan, London, 1978.

[4] M. Silhavy, “The Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Continuous Media,” Springer, Berlin, 1997, p. 209.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-03389-0_14

[5] Y. Sawada, “A Thermodynamic Variational Principle in Nonlinear Non-Equilibrium Phenomena,” Progress of Theoretical Physics, Vol. 66, No. 1, 1981, pp. 68-76.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1143/PTP.66.68

[6] W. V. R. Malkus and G. Veronis, “Finite Amplitude Cellular Convection,” Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1958, pp. 225-260.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022112058000410

[7] L. Onsager, “Reciprocal Relations in Irreversible Processes. I,” Physical Review, Vol. 37, No. 4, 1931, pp. 405- 426. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.37.405

[8] M. Suzuky and Y. Sawada, “Relative Stabilities of Metastable States of Convecting Charged-Fluid Systems by Computer Simulation,” Physical Review A, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1983, pp. 478-489.

[9] W. T. Grandy, “Entropy and the Time Evolution of Macroscopic Systems,” Oxford University Press, New York, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199546176.001.0001

[10] E. Madelung, “Quantentheorie in Hydrodynamischer Form,” Zeitschrift für Physik, Vol. 40, No. 3-4, 1926, pp. 322-326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01400372

[11] I. Bialy-nicki-Birula, M. Cieplak and J. Kaminski, “Theory of Quanta,” Oxford University Press, New York, 1992.

[12] J. H. Weiner, “Statistical Mechanics of Elasticity,” John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1983, pp. 316-317.

[13] P. Chiarelli, “Can Fluctuating Quantum States Acquire the Classical Behavior on Large Scale?” Journal of Advanced Research in Physics, Vol. 2, 2013, pp. 139-163.

[14] P. Chiarelli, “Far from Equilibrium Maximal Principle Leading to Matter Self-Organization” Journal of Advances in Chemistry, Vol. 5, No. 3, 2013, pp. 753-783.

[15] P. Chiarelli, “Quantum to Classical Transition in the Stochastic Hydrodynamic Analogy: The Explanation of the Lindemann Relation and the Analogies between the Maximum of Density at He Lambda Point and that One at Water-Ice Phase Transition,” Physical Review & Research International, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2013, pp. 348-366.

[16] Y. B. Rumer and M. S. Ryvkin, “Thermodynamics, Statistical Physics, and Kinetics,” Mir Publishers, Moscow, 1980.

[17] M. Suzuki and Y. Sawada, “Propagation Transitions of Electroconvection,” Physical Review A, Vol. 31, No. 14, 1985, pp. 2548-2555.

[18] C. P. McKay and H. D. Smith, “Possibilities for Metha-nogenic Life in Liquid Methane on the Surface of Titan,” Icarus, Vol. 178 No. 1, 2005, pp. 274-276.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2005.05.018

[19] Committee on the Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems, Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life and National Research Council, “The Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems,” The National Academies Press, Washington DC, 2007, p. 74.

[20] M. Paecht-Horowitz, J. Berger and A. Kat-chalsky, “Prebiotic Synthesis of Polypeptides by Heterogeneous Poly- condensation of Amino-Acid Adenylates,” Nature, Vol. 228, No. 5272, 1970, pp.636-639.

[21] A. Katchalsky and P. F. Curran, “Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics in Biophysics,” Harvard University Press Cambridge, 1965.

[22] A. S. Perelson, “Network Thermodynamics,” Biophysical Journal, Vol. 15, No. 7, 1975, pp. 667-685.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3495(75)85847-4

[23] R. Shapiro, “Origins: A Skeptic’s Guide to the Creation of Life on Earth,” Bantam Books, 1987, p. 110.

[24] C. Menor-Salván, D. M. Ruiz-Bermejo, M. I. Guzmán, S. Osuna-Esteban and S. Veintemillas-Verdaguer, “Synthesis of Pyrimidines and Triazines in Ice: Implications for the Prebiotic Chemistry of Nucleobases,” Chemistry, Vol. 15, No. 17, 2007, pp. 4411-4418.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.200802656

[25] P. Chiarelli and D. De Rossi, “Polyelectrolyte Intelligent Gels: Design and Application,” In A. Ciferri and A. Perico, Eds., Ionic interactions in Natural and Synthetic Molecules, John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Chichester, 2012, pp. 602-604.