IJG  Vol.5 No.1 , January 2014
An Improved Method of Retrieving Sea Surface Wind Speed Based on a Four-Layer Medium Model at High Sea States
ABSTRACT

Considering about the effect of whitecaps and foams on pulse-limited Radar Altimeters, an improved algorithm of retrieving sea surface wind speed is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a four-layer dielectric model is established in order to simulate an air-sea interface. Secondly, the microwave reflectivity of a sea surface covered by spray droplets and foams at 13.5 GHz is computed based on the established model. These computed results show that the effect of spray droplets and foams in high sea state conditions shall not be negligible on retrieving sea surface wind speed. Finally, compared with the analytical algorithms proposed by Zhao and some calculated results based on a three-layer dielectric model, an improved algorithm of retrieving sea surface wind speed is presented. At a high wind speed, the improved algorithm is in a better accord with some empirical algorithms such as Brown, Young ones and et al., and also in a good agreement with ZT and other algorithms at low wind speed. This new improved algorithm will be suitable not only for low wind speed retrieval, but also for high wind speed retrieval. Better accuracy and effectiveness of wind speed retrieval can also be obtained.


Cite this paper
Tian, J. , Liu, Q. , Pan, W. and Shi, J. (2014) An Improved Method of Retrieving Sea Surface Wind Speed Based on a Four-Layer Medium Model at High Sea States. International Journal of Geosciences, 5, 85-92. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2014.51010.
References
[1]   J. T. McGoogan, L. S. Miller, G. S. Brown and G. S. Hayne, “The S-193 Radar Altimeter Experiment,” Proceedings of The IEEE—PIEEE, Vol. 62, No. 6, 1974, pp. 793-803.

[2]   H. R. Stanley, “The Geos 3 Project,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth (1978-2012), Vol. 84, No. B8, 1979, pp. 3779-3783.

[3]   D.-L. Zhao and Q. Ye, “On Altimeter wind Speed Model Functions and Retrieval of Wave Period,” Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 26, No. 5, 2004, pp. 1-11.

[4]   G. S. Brown, H. R. Stanley and N. A. Roy, “The Wind Speed Measurement Capacity of Space Borne Radar Altimeter,” IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1981, pp. 59-63.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JOE.1981.1145484

[5]   I. R. Young, “An Estimate of the Geosat Altimeter Wind Speed Algorithm at High Wind Speeds,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 98, No. C11, 1993, pp. 20275-20285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/93JC02117

[6]   D. L. Zhao and Y. Toba, “A Spectral Approach for Determining Altimeter Wind Speed Model Functions,” Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 59, No. 2, 2003, pp. 235-244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1025599423405

[7]   D. L. Zhao and Y. Toba, “Effect of Wave States on Altimeter Wind Speed Algorithm at High Wind Speeds,” The 22nd 267 Asian Conference on Remote Sensing, Singapore City, 5-9 November 2001, pp. 1-6.

[8]   V. Karaev and M. Kanevsky, “Determination of the Near Ocean Surface Wind Speed by Altimeter Data: The First Results, Mathematical Methods in Electromagnetic Theory,” 6th International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Electromagnetic Theory, Lviv, 10-13 September 1996, pp. 449-452.

[9]   J. Gourrion, D. Vandemark, S. Bailey, et al., “A Two-Parameter Wind Speed Algorithm for Ku-Band Altimeters,” Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Vol. 19, No. 12, 2002, pp. 2030-2048.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0426(2002)019<2030:ATPWSA>2.0.CO;2

[10]   F. M. Monaldo and E. B. Dobson, “On Using Significant Wave Height and Radar Cross Section to Improve Radar Altimeter Measurements of Wind Speed,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 94, No. C9, 1989, pp. 12699-12701. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/JC094iC09p12699

[11]   Q. Zheng, V. Klemas, G. S. Haynes and N. E. Huang, “The Effect of Oceanic Whitecaps and Foams on Pulse-Limited Radar Altimeter,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 88, C4, 1983, pp. 2571-2578.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/JC088iC04p02571

[12]   R. M. Gairola and P. C. Pandey, “The Effect of Whitecaps and Foam on Wind Speed Extraction with a Pulse Limited Radar Altimeter,” Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol.95, No. 2, 1986, pp. 265-273.

[13]   L. Yang, J. H. Zou, M. S. Lin and D. L. Pan, “Method to Correct Both Foam and Rain Effects Dual Frequency Altimeter Jason1 Wind Measurements in Typhoon Shanshan,” Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 7105, 2008, pp. 1-11.

[14]   G. R. Valenzuela, “Theories for the Interaction of Electromagnetic and Oceanic Waves—A Review,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol. 13, No. 1-4, 1978, pp. 61-85.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00913863

[15]   D. E. Barrick, “Rough Surface Scattering Based on the Specular Point Theory,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. AP-16, No. 4, 1968, pp. 449-454.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TAP.1968.1139220

[16]   E. L. Andreas and J. B. Edsion, “The Spray Contribution to Net Evaporation from the Sea: A Review of Recent Progress,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol. 72, No. 1-2, 1995, pp 3-52.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00712389

[17]   J. Wu, “Oceanic Whitecaps and Sea State,” Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 9, No. 5, 1979, pp. 1064-1068.

[18]   E. C. Manahan, et al., “Optimal Power-Law Description of Oceanic Whitecap: Coverage Dependence on Wind Speed,” Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 10, No. 12, 1980, pp. 2094-2099.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1980)010<2094:OPLDOO>2.0.CO;2

[19]   D. B. Ross, et al., “Observations of Oceanic Whitecaps and Their Relation to Remote Sensing Measurements of Surface Wind Speed,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 79, No. 3, 1974, pp. 444-452.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/JC079i003p00444

[20]   F. C. Jackson, W. T. Walton, D. E. Hines, B. A. Walter, et al., “Sea Surface Mean Square Slope from Ku-Band Backscatter Data,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 97, No. C7, 1992, pp. 11411-11427.

[21]   E. J. Walsh, D. C. Vandemark, C. A. Friehe, S. P. Burns, D. Khelif, R. N. Swift, et al., “Measurements Sea Surface Mean Square Slope with a 36-GHz Scanning Radar Altimeter,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 103, No. C6, 1998, pp. 12587-12601.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/97JC02443

 
 
Top