AASoci  Vol.4 No.1 , January 2014
The Prediction of Social Problem-Solving Skills Based on Birth Order and Attachment Styles

The purpose of this research was to predict social problem-solving skills in two dimensions (functional and dysfunctional), based on birth order and attachment s in university students. For the study, 234 students were randomly selected at Azad University in the Science & Research Branch, who completed two questionnaires: Hazen & Shaver’s Attachment Styles Inventory (AAI) and D’Zurilla et al.’s Social Problem Solving Skills Inventory-Revised (SPSI_R). Data were analyzed with multiple regression and MANOVA tests. The results revealed that avoidant and anxious attachment s had significant and positive relationship with dysfunctional social problem solving, and had significant and negative relationship with functional social problem solving skills; and birth order significantly predicted dysfunctional social problem solving. Also, a comparison of the first and last children showed that a significant difference existed between the mean of first and last children in avoidant attachment (first children were higher than that of last children). But there is no significant difference between first and last children in the dimensions of social problem-solving skills.

Cite this paper: Abolmaali, K. , Keivan, L. & Ajilchi, B. (2014). The Prediction of Social Problem-Solving Skills Based on Birth Order and Attachment Styles. Advances in Applied Sociology, 4, 15-19. doi: 10.4236/aasoci.2014.41003.

[1]   Abolmaali, Kh. (2010). Theories of criminology and delinquency. Tehran: Arjmand.

[2]   Ainsworth, M. S., Blehar, M. C., Water, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: Psychological study of the strange situation. Tilsdate, NJ: Elbaum.

[3]   Allen, J. P. (2002). Attachment and autonomy as predictors of the development of social skills and deviance during mid-adolescence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 56-66.

[4]   Besharat, M. A., & Shalchi, B. (2007). The relationship between attachment styles and coping stress mechanism. Journal of Iranians’ Psychologists, 11, 225-235.

[5]   Chang, C., D’Zurilla, T. J., & Sanna, L. (2004). Social problem solving: Theory, Research, and Training. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

[6]   Collins, N. L., & Read, S. J. (1990). Adult attachment, working models, and relationship quality in dating couples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 644-663.

[7]   Ditommaso, E., Brannen-McNulty, C., Ross, L., & Burgess, M. (2003). Attachment styles, social skills and loneliness in young adults. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 303-312.

[8]   D’Zurilla, T. J., Nezu, A. M., & Maydeu-Olivares, T. (2002). Social Problem-Solving Inventory Revised (SPSI-R): Manual. North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems.

[9]   Fullam, A. (2002). Adult attachment, emotional intelligence, health, and immunological responsiveness to stress. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences an Engineering, 63, 1079.

[10]   Gillath, O., Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. (2001). Subliminal 7 threatprimes increase the accessibility of attachment figures 7 names. Poster Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco, CA.

[11]   Ghorbani, N. (2002). Short-term Dynamic Psychotherapy. Tehran: Samt.

[12]   Karimi, J. (2003). Personality psychology (9th edition). Tehran: Payam Noor University Press.

[13]   Harris, J. R. (2006). No two alike. Journal of Human Nature and Human Individuality, 30, 107-112.

[14]   Hazen, C., & Shaver, P. (1987). Romantic love conceptualizes easy attachment process. Journal of Social Psychology, 52, 511-524.

[15]   Kobak, R. R., Holland, E. C., Rayanne, F., William, S. F., & Wendy, G. (1993). Attachment and emotion regulation during mother-teen problem solving: A control theory analysis. Journal of Child Development, 64, 231-245.

[16]   Main, M., & Hesse, E. (1990). Parents’ unresolved traumatic experiences are related to infant disorganized attachment status: Is frightened/frightening parental behavior the linking mechanism? In M. T. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti, & E. M. Cummings (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research, and intervention (pp. 161182). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

[17]   Main, M., & Solomon, J. (1986). Discovery of an insecure-disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern: Procedures, findings and implications for the classification of behavior. In T. B. Brazelton, & M. Yogman (Eds.), Affective development in infancy (pp. 95-124). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

[18]   Nezu, M. C., D’Zurilla, T. J., & Nezu, A. M. (2005). Problem solving therapy: Theory, practice and application to sex offenders. In M. McMurran, & J. McGuire (Eds.), Social problem solving and offending: Evidence, evaluation and evolution (pp. 103-123). Chichester: John Willy & Sons, Ltd.

[19]   Rahimian, A., Asghar Nejad, F., & Rahimi Nejad, A. S. (2006). Relationship between attachment style and mental health in adults in earthquake struck the city of Bam. Journal of Cognitive Studies, 11, 23-28.

[20]   Rafiee Tari, N. (2008). Attachment styles, coping with relational aggression in students. MS Thesis, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch.

[21]   Riggio, R. E., & Sotoodeh, Y. (1989). Social skills and birth order. Fullerton: California State.

[22]   Taghiloo, S. (2009). Structural equation modeling approach in examining the relationship between personality traits, social problem solving in girls and boys. PhD Dissertation, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch.

[23]   Vafaeian, M. (2006). The relationship between attachment styles and social skills in high school students in Yazd. MS Thesis, Yazd University.

[24]   Vermigli, P., & Toni, A. (2004). Attachment and field dependence: individual differences in information processing. Journal of European Psychologist, 9, 43-55.

[25]   Zaeri, M. (2003). Relationship between birth order, social skills and group acceptance among male students school. MS Thesis, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen Branch.