OJST  Vol.4 No.1 , January 2014
The effects of smoking on periodontal disease: An evidence-based comprehensive literature review
Author(s) Mahmoud Abu-Ta’a*

The direct link between smoking, lung diseases, cancer, cardiovascular disease and poor pregnancy outcomes, such as miscarriage and low birth weight, has been extensively studied. In the past three decades, there has also been an increasing awareness of the impact of smoking on periodontal disease. Smoking is considered the major environmental risk factor in the prevalence, extent and severity of periodontal disease. This review article will attempt to build on previous studies in the periodontal literature in order to present an evidence-based comprehensive literature review on the effects of smoking on periodontal disease.

Cite this paper
Abu-Ta’a, M. (2014) The effects of smoking on periodontal disease: An evidence-based comprehensive literature review. Open Journal of Stomatology, 4, 33-41. doi: 10.4236/ojst.2014.41007.
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