IJG  Vol.5 No.1 , January 2014
Changing Vegetation Patterns in Yobe State Nigeria: An Analysis of the Rates of Change, Potential Causes and the Implications for Sustainable Resource Management
ABSTRACT

The exploitation of natural resources for timber production, fuelwood use and conversion to agricultural land is increasing to such an extent that the sustainable use of many areas of the world is in doubt. This paper examines three decades of freely available Landsat satellite images of the northeastern part of Nigeria using a supervised classification based technique to create maps of vegetation change in Yobe State. The maps are then used to examine the temporal and spatial aspects of changes which have occurred in the context of previous evidence and literature. The results indicate that the vegetation of the area has drastically reduced since the 1970’s. However, as this study shows, the pattern of these changes is complicated and cannot be explained by any single physical or anthropogenic causal factor. Similarly, evidence from ground truthing investigation indicates the importance of fuelwood collection to the deforestation process within the region. This article shows the value of an existing remote sensing and image processing methodology for the assessment of vegetation change in developing countries in relation to the sustainable management of natural resources. The study also discusses the overall change within the study area and discusses several potential causative factors of the observed patterns of change.


Cite this paper
Naibbi, A. , Baily, B. , Healey, R. and Collier, P. (2014) Changing Vegetation Patterns in Yobe State Nigeria: An Analysis of the Rates of Change, Potential Causes and the Implications for Sustainable Resource Management. International Journal of Geosciences, 5, 50-62. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2014.51007.
References
[1]   K. M. Chomitz and C. Griffiths, “An Economic Analysis and Simulation of Wood Fuel Management in the Sahel,” Environmental and Resource Economics, Vol. 19, No. 3, 2001, pp. 285-304.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1011184808319

[2]   G. Perez-Verdin, Y. Kim, D. Hospodarsky and A. Tecle, “Factors Driving Deforestation in Common-Pool Resources in Northern Mexico,” Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 90, No. 1, 2009, pp. 331-340.

[3]   T. Forsyth, “Critical Political Ecology: The Politics of Environmental Science,” Routledge, London, 2003.

[4]   Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), “Global Forest Resource Assessment Main Report 2010,” FAO Forestry Paper, 2011, p. 163.
http://foris.fao.org/static/data/fra2010/FRA2010_Report_en_WEB.pdf

[5]   H. Odiogor, “Special Report on Desertification in Nigeria: The Sun Eats Our Land,” Vanguard Newspaper, 2010.
http://odili.net/news/source/2010/may/4/300.html

[6]   M. J. Mortimore and W. M. Adams, “Farmer Adaptation, Change and Crisis in the Sahel,” Global Environmental Change, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2001, pp. 49-57.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0959-3780(00)00044-3

[7]   J. Odihi, “Deforestation in Afforestation Priority Zone in Sudano-Sahelian Nigeria,” Applied Geography, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2003, pp. 227-259.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2003.08.004

[8]   L. Olsson, L. Eklundh and J. Ardo, “A Recent Greening of the Sahel-Trends, Patterns and Potential Causes,” Journal of Arid Environments, Vol. 63, No. 3, 2005, pp. 556-566. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2005.03.008

[9]   A. Anyambaa and C. J. Tucker, “Analysis of Sahelian Vegetation Dynamics Using Noaa-AVHRR NDVI Data from 1981-2003,” Journal of Arid Environments, Vol. 63, No. 3, 2005, pp. 596-614.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2005.03.007

[10]   G. C. Nelson and J. Geoghegan, “Deforestation and Land Use Change: Sparse Data Environments,” Agricultural Economics, Vol. 27, No. 3, 2002, pp. 201-216.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-0862.2002.tb00117.x

[11]   P. H. Verburg, K. P. Overmars, M. G. A. Huigen, W. T. De Groot and. A. Veldkamp, “Analysis of the Effects of Land Use Change on Protected Areas in the Philippines,” Applied Geography, Vol. 26, No. 2, 2006, pp. 153-173.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2005.11.005

[12]   I. A. Ademiluyi. A. S. Okude and C. O. Akanni, “An Appraisal of Land Use and Landcover Mapping in Nigeria,” African Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 3, No. 9, 2008, pp. 581-586.

[13]   D. E. Parry and J. W. Trevett, “Mapping Nigeria’s Vegetation from Radar,” The Geographical Journal, Vol. 145, No. 2, 1979, pp. 265-274.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/634392

[14]   Forestry Management Evaluation and Coordinating Unit (FORMECU), “Nigerian Forestry Action Program,” Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Abuja, 1996.

[15]   W. M. Adams, “Green Development: Environment and Sustainability in a Developing World,” 3rd Edition, Routledge, London, 2009.

[16]   A. Mather, “Book Reviews: Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000 Main Report FAO Forestry Paper 140, FAO, Rome, 2001,” Land Use Policy, Vol. 20, No. 2, 2003, pp. 195-200.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0264-8377(03)00003-6

[17]   T. M. Hess, W. Stephens and U. M. Maryah, “Rainfall Trends in the North East Arid Zone of Nigeria 1961-1990,” Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 74, No. 1-2, 1995, pp. 87-97.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-1923(94)02179-N

[18]   National Population Commission of Nigeria [NPC], “2006 Facts and Figures,” 2010.
www.Population.gov.ng/factsandfigures2006

[19]   F. Chothia, “Who Are Nigeria’s Boko Haram Islamists? BBC African Service,” 2012.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13809501.Accessed 10/12/2012

[20]   K. Olsson, “Fuelwood Demand and Supply in the Umm Ruwaba/Er Rahad Region in N. Kordofan, the Sudan: A Study Based on Field Data and Landsat MSS Information,” 2010.
http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/libraries/forestry-grey-literature/Olsson.pdf

[21]   G. Hiemstra-van der Horst and A. J. Hovorka, “Fuelwood: The ‘Other’ Renewable Energy Source for Africa?” Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 33, No. 11, 2009, pp. 1605-1616. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2009.08.007

[22]   L. Tole, “An Estimation of Forest Cover and Change in Jamaica Using Landsat MSS Data,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2002, pp. 91-106.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01431160010014837

[23]   S. A. Sader and J. C. Winne, “RGB-NDVI Colour Composites for Visualizing Forest Change Dynamics,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 13, No. 16, 1992, pp. 3055-3067.

[24]   S. A. Sader, M. Bertr and E. H. Wilson, “Satellite Change Detection of Forest Harvest Patterns on an Industrial Forest Landscape,” Forest Science, Vol. 49, No. 3, 2003, pp. 341-353.

[25]   P. Leimgruber, C. A. Christen and A. Laborderie, “The Impact of Landsat Satellite Monitoring on Conservation Biology,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 106, No. 1-3, 2005, pp. 81-101.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-005-0763-0

[26]   S. A. Sader and K. R. Legaard, “Inclusion of Forest Harvest Legacies, Forest Type, and Regeneration Spatial Patterns in Updated Forest Maps: A Comparison of Mapping Results,” Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 255, No. 11, 2008, pp. 3846-3856.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2008.03.047

[27]   J. M. Bart, “Pre-Water Audit for the Komadugu-Yobe River Basin, Northern Nigeria and Southern Niger. (IUCN—The World Conservation Union, Federal Ministry of Water Resources and Nigerian Conservation Foundation, Kano, Nigeria),” 2010.
http://www.kyb-project.net/_products/200511-pre_water_audit_KYB.pdf

[28]   C. L. Hardin and L. Maffi, “Color Categories in Thought and Language,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511519819

[29]   J. B. Campbell, “Introduction to Remote Sensing,” 3rd Edition, The Guilford Press, New York, 2002.

[30]   W. B. Cohen, M. Fiorella, J. Gray, E. Helmer and K. Anderson, “An Efficient and Accurate Method for Mapping Forest Clearcuts in the Pacific Northwest Using Landsat Imagery,” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, Vol. 64, No. 4, 1998, pp. 293-300.

[31]   NBS, “Population and Vital Statistics,” 2012.
http://www.nigerianstat.gov.ng

[32]   NBS, “Social Statistics in Nigeria,” 2012.
http://www.nigerianstat.gov.ng

[33]   Max Lock Group Nigeria (MLGN), “Potiskum: Surveys and Planning Reports for Borno, Bauchi, and Gongola state Governments between 1973-1976,” Warminster Press Ltd., Warminster, 1976.

[34]   Population Reference Bureau (PRB), “Human Population: Fundamentals of Growth and Change,” Washington DC, 2009.

[35]   O. F. Ati, C. J. Stigter, E. O. Iguisi, and J. O. Afolayan, “Profile of Rainfall Change and Variability in the Northern Nigeria, 1953-2002,” Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences, Vol. 1, 2 No., 2009, pp. 58-63.

[36]   S. A. Herrmann, A. Anyamba and C. J. Tucker, “Recent Trends in Vegetation Dynamics in the African Sahel and Their Relationship to Climate,” Global Environmental Change, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2005, pp. 394-404.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2005.08.004

[37]   Borno State of Nigeria Gazette, “Borno State Notice. No. 62. No. 34 Vol. 12,” Government Printer, Maiduguri, 1987.

[38]   L. M. Olayiwola and O. A. Adeleye, “Rural Infrastructural Development in Nigeria: Between 1960 and 1990— Problems and Challenges,” Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2005, pp. 91-96.

[39]   O. D. Akinsola and O. I. Oladele, “National Agricultural Land Development Authority’s (NALDA) Intervention Programme in Nigerian Agriculture: Lessons and Challenges,” Food, Agriculture and Environment, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2004, pp. 249-254.

[40]   R. A. Cline-Cole, J. A. Falola, H. A. C. Main, M. J. Mortimore, J. E. Nichol and F. D. O’Reilly, “Wood Fuel in Kano,” United Nations University Press, Tokyo, 1990.

[41]   M. J. Mortimore, “Policy Issues,” In: J. Odihi, Deforestation in Afforestation Priority Zone in Sudano-Sahelian Nigeria, Applied Geography, Vol. 23, 1990, pp. 227-259.

[42]   R. Maconachie, A. Tanko and M. Zakariya, “Descending the Energy Ladder? Oil Price Shocks and Domestic Fuel Choices in Kano, Nigeria,” Land Use Policy, Vol. 26, No. 4, 2009, pp. 1090-1099.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2009.01.008

[43]   A. I. Naibbi and R. G. Healey, “Northern Nigeria’s Dependence on Fuelwood: Insights from Nationwide Cooking Fuel Distribution Data,” International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol. 3, No. 17, 2013, pp. 160-173.

 
 
Top