IJG  Vol.5 No.1 , January 2014
Remote Sensing Data Application to Monitor Snow Cover Variation and Hydrological Regime in a Poorly Gauged River Catchment—Northern Pakistan
ABSTRACT

Snow- and glacier-nourished river basins located in the Himalaya-Karakoram-Hindukush (HKH) ranges supply a significant amount of discharge in River Indus upstream Tarbela Dam. It is, hence, important to comprehend the cryosphere variation and its relationship to the stream flow in these high-altitude river catchments. The MODIS remotely sensed database of snow products was chosen to examine the average annual snow and glacier cover (cryosphere) variations in the Shigar River basin (poorly gauged mountainous sub-catchment of the Indus River). Hydrological regime in the area was investigated through monthly database of observed stream fluxes and climate variables (precipitation and mean temperature) for the Shigar River catchment. Analysis indicated the usefulness of remote sensing techniques for estimation of the snow cover variation in the poorly or un-gauged high-elevation catchments of the HKH zone. Results also showed that Shigar River discharge was influenced mainly by the seasonal and annual snow cover area (SCA) variation and the temperature seasonality. Moreover, it is important to uncover such inter-relationship of stream flow, climate variables and snow cover in the poorly gauged high-altitude catchments of Karakoram region for better water resource management and accurate flood hazards predictions at Tarbela.


Cite this paper
Hakeem, S. , Bilal, M. , Pervez, A. and Tahir, A. (2014) Remote Sensing Data Application to Monitor Snow Cover Variation and Hydrological Regime in a Poorly Gauged River Catchment—Northern Pakistan. International Journal of Geosciences, 5, 27-37. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2014.51005.
References
[1]   D. Bocchiola, G. Diolaiuti, A. Soncini, C. Mihalcea, C. D’Agata, C. Mayer, A. Lambrecht, R. Rosso and C. Smiraglia, “Prediction of Future Hydrological Regimes in Poorly Gauged High Altitude Basins: The Case Study of the Upper Indus, Pakistan,” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS), Vol. 15, No. 7, 2011, pp. 2059-2075.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hess-15-2059-2011

[2]   D. R. Archer, N. Forsythe, H. J. Fowler and S. M. Shah, “Sustainability of Water Resources Management in the Indus Basin under Changing Climatic and socio Economic Conditions,” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS), Vol. 14, No. 8, 2010, pp. 1669-1680.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hess-14-1669-2010

[3]   K. Hewitt, “Hazards of Melting as an Option,” Upper Indus Glaciers I & II, 2001.

[4]   K. Hewitt, “Tributary Glacier Surges: An Exceptional Concentration at Panmah Glacier, Karakoram Himalaya,” Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 53, No. 181, 2007, pp. 181-188. http://dx.doi.org/10.3189/172756507782202829

[5]   D. Archer, “Contrasting Hydrological Regimes in the Upper Indus Basin,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 274, No. 1-4, 2003, pp. 198-210.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1694(02)00414-6

[6]   B. Bookhagen and D. W. Burbank, “Toward a Complete Himalayan Hydrological Budget: Spatiotemporal Distribution of Snowmelt and Rainfall and Their Impact on River Discharge,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, No. F3, 2010, Article ID: F03019.

[7]   W. W. Immerzeel, L. P. H. van Beek and M. F. P. Bierkens, “Climate Change Will Affect the Asian Water Towers,” Science, Vol. 328, No. 5984, 2010, pp. 1382-1385. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1183188

[8]   K. Hewitt, C. P. Wake, G. J. Young and C. David, “Hydrological Investigation at Biafo Glacier, Karakoram Range, Himalaya; an Important Source of Water for the Indus River,” Annals of Glaciology, Vol. 13, 1989, pp. 103-108.

[9]   C. P. Wake, “Glaciochemical Investigations as a Tool to Determine the Spatial Variation of Snow Accumulation in the Central Karakoram, Northern Pakistan,” Annals of Glaciology, Vol. 13, 1989, pp. 279-284.

[10]   G. J. Young and K. Hewitt, “Hydrology Research in the Upper Indus Basin, Karakoram Himalaya, Pakistan,” Hydrology of Mountanous Areas, Czechoslovakia, 1990, pp. 139-152.

[11]   H. Liniger, R. Weingartner and M. Grosjean, “Mountains of the World: Water towers for the 21st Century,” Berne, 1998.

[12]   IPCC, “Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R. K. Pachauri and A. Reisinger, Eds.],” Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Geneva, 2007.

[13]   M. Sivapalan, K. Takeuchi, S. W. Franks, V. K. Gupta, H. Karambiri, V. Lakshmi, X. Liang, J. J. McDonnell, E. M. Mendiondo, P. E. O’Connell, T. Oki, J. W. Pomeroy, D. Schertzer, S. Uhlenbrook and E. Zehe, “IAHS Decade on Predictions in Ungauged Basins (PUB), 2003-2012: Shaping an Exciting Future for the Hydrological Sciences,” Hydrological Sciences Journal, Vol. 48, No. 6, 2003, pp. 857-880. http://dx.doi.org/10.1623/hysj.48.6.857.51421

[14]   E. Berthier, Y. Arnaud, R. Kumar, S. Ahmad, P. Wagnon and P. Chevallier, “Remote Sensing Estimates of Glacier Mass Balances in the Himachal Pradesh (Western Himalaya, India),” Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 108, No. 3, 2007, pp. 327-338.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2006.11.017

[15]   J. Gardelle, E. Berthier and Y. Arnaud, “Slight Mass Gain of Karakoram Glaciers in the Early Twenty-First Century,” Nature Geoscience, Vol. 5, No. 5, 2012, pp. 322-325.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1450

[16]   J. Gardelle, E. Berthier, Y. Arnaud and A. Kaab, “Region-Wide Glacier Mass Balances over the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya during 1999-2011,” The Cryosphere, Vol. 7, No. 4, 2013, pp. 1263-1286.

[17]   A. Kaab, E. Berthier, C. Nuth, J. Gardelle and Y. Arnaud, “Contrasting Patterns of Early Twenty-First-Century Glacier Mass Change in the Himalayas,” Nature, Vol. 488, No. 7412, 2012, pp. 495-498.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature11324

[18]   T. Yao, L. Thompson, W. Yang, W. Yu, Y. Gao, X. Guo, X. Yang, K. Duan, H. Zhao, B. Xu, J. Pu, A. Lu, Y. Xiang, D. B. Kattel and D. Joswiak, “Different Glacier Status with Atmospheric Circulations in Tibetan Plateau and Surroundings,” Nature Climate Change, Vol. 2, No. 9, 2012, pp. 1-5.

[19]   K. Hewitt, “The Karakoram Anomaly? Glacier Expansion and the Elevation Effect, Karakoram Himalaya,” Mountain Research and Development, Vol. 25, No. 4, 2005, pp. 332-340.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1659/0276-4741(2005)025[0332:TKAGEA]2.0.CO;2

[20]   H. J. Fowler and D. R. Archer, “Conflicting Signals of Climatic Change in the Upper Indus Basin,” Journal of Climate, Vol. 19, No. 17, 2006, pp. 4276-4293.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3860.1

[21]   C. Mayer, A. Lambrecht, C. Mihalcea, M. Belò, G. Diolaiuti, C. Smiraglia and F. Bashir, “Analysis of Glacial Meltwater in Bagrot Valley, Karakoram,” Mountain Research and Development, Vol. 30, No. 2, 2010, pp. 169-177.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1659/MRD-JOURNAL-D-09-00043.1

[22]   A. J. Dietz, C. Kuenzer, U. Gessner and S. Dech, “Remote Sensing of Snow—A Review of Available Methods,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 33, No. 13, 2011, pp. 4094-4134.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01431161.2011.640964

[23]   P. Sirguey, R. Mathieu and Y. Arnaud, “Subpixel Monitoring of the Seasonal Snow Cover with MODIS at 250-m Spatial Resolution in the Southern Alps of New Zealand: Methodology and Accuracy Assessment,” Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 113, No. 1, 2009, pp. 160-181.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2008.09.008

[24]   A. V. Kulkarni, B. P. Rathore, S. K. Singh and I. M. Bahuguna, “Understanding Changes in the Himalayan Cryosphere Using Remote Sensing Techniques,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 32, No. 3, 2011, pp. 601-615.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01431161.2010.517802

[25]   J. H. Mercer, “Glaciers of the Karakoram,” In: W. O. Field, Ed., Mountain Glaciers of the Northern Hemisphere, CRREL, Hanover New Hampshire, 1975, pp. 371-409.

[26]   A. A. Tahir, P. Chevallier, Y. Arnaud and B. Ahmad, “Snow Cover Dynamics and Hydrological Regime of the Hunza River Basin, Karakoram Range, Northern Pakistan,” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS), Vol. 15, No. 7, 2011, pp. 2275-2290.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hess-15-2275-2011

[27]   B. Sevruk, “Correction of Precipitation Measurements,” Workshop on the Correction of Precipitation Measurements, Zurich, 1985, pp. 13-23.

[28]   B. Sevruk, “Reliability of precipitation Measurement,” International Workshop on Precipitation Measurement, 1989, pp. 13-19.

[29]   E. J. Førland, P. Allerup, B. Dahlstrom, E. Elomaa, T. Jónsson, H. Madsen, J. Perala, P. Rissanen, H. Vedin and F. Vejen, “Manual for Operational Correction of Nordic Precipitation Data,” DNMI, Oslo, 1996.

[30]   METI and NASA, “ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM),” 2009.
http://www.ersdac.or.jp/GDEM/E/2.html

[31]   NSIDC, “World Glacier Inventory. Compiled and Made Available by the World Glacier Monitoring Service, Zurich, Switzerland, and the National Snow and Ice Data Center,” Boulder CO, U.S.A., National Snow and Ice Data Center, 1989, updated 2012.

[32]   D. Hall, G. Riggs and V. Salomonson, “MODIS/Terra Snow Cover 8-Day L3 Global 500m Grid V005,” March 2000 to December 2009, National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, Colorado, Digital media, 2006, updated weekly.

[33]   E. P. Maurer, J. D. Rhoads, R. O. Dubayah and D. P. Lettenmaier, “Evaluation of the Snow-Covered Area Data Product from MODIS,” Hydrological Processes, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2003, pp. 59-71.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hyp.1193

[34]   S. Lee, A. G. Klein and T. M. Over, “A Comparison of MODIS and NOHRSC Snow-Cover Products for Simulating Streamflow Using the Snowmelt Runoff Model,” Hydrological Processes, Vol. 19, No. 15, 2005, pp. 2951-2972. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hyp.5810

[35]   A. E. Tekeli, Z. Akyürek, A. ArdaSorman, A. Sensoy and A. ünalSorman, “Using MODIS Snow Cover Maps in Modeling Snowmelt Runoff Process in the Eastern Part of Turkey,” Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 97, No. 2, 2005, pp. 216-230.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2005.03.013

[36]   W. W. Immerzeel, P. Droogers, S. M. de Jong and M. F. P. Bierkens, “Large-Scale Monitoring of Snow Cover and Runoff Simulation in Himalayan River Basins Using Remote Sensing,” Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 113, No. 1, 2009, pp. 40-49.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2008.08.010

[37]   Z. Akyurek, D. K. Hall, G. A. Riggs and A. Sensoy, “Evaluating the Utility of the ANSA Blended Snow Cover Product in the Mountains of Eastern Turkey,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 31, No. 14, 2010, pp. 3727-3744.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01431161.2010.483484

[38]   S. K. Jain, A. Goswami and A. K. Saraf, “Accuracy Assessment of MODIS, NOAA and IRS Data in Snow Cover Mapping under Himalayan Conditions,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 29, No. 20, 2008, pp. 5863-5878.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01431160801908129

[39]   Q. Tang, M. Durand, D. P. Lettenmaier and Y. Hong, “Satellite-Based Observations of Hydrological Processes,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 31, No. 14, 2010, pp. 3661-3667.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01431161.2010.483496

[40]   Q. Tang and D. P. Lettenmaier, “Use of Satellite Snow-Cover Data for Streamflow Prediction in the Feather River Basin, California,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 31, No. 14, 2010, pp. 3745-3762.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01431161.2010.483493

[41]   X. Huang, T. Liang, X. Zhang and Z. Guo, “Validation of MODIS Snow Cover Products Using Landsat and Ground Measurements during the 2001-2005 Snow Seasons over Northern Xinjiang, China,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 32, No. 1, 2011, pp. 133-152.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01431160903439924

[42]   J. L. Foster, D. K. Hall, J. B. Eylander, G. A. Riggs, S. V. Nghiem, M. Tedesco, E. Kim, P. M. Montesano, R. E. J. Kelly, K. A. Casey and B. Choudhury, “A Blended Global Snow Product Using Visible, Passive Microwave and Scatterometer Satellite Data,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 32, No. 5, 2011, pp. 1371-1395.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01431160903548013

[43]   J. L. Rodgers and W. A. Nicewander, “Thirteen Ways to Look at the Correlation Coefficient,” The American Statistician, Vol. 42, No. 1, 1988, pp. 59-66.

[44]   C. Spearman, “The Proof and Measurement of Association between Two Things,” American Journal of Psychology, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1904, pp. 72-101.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1412159

[45]   M. G. Kendall, “Rank Correlation Measures,” Charles Griffin, London, 1975.

[46]   M. G. Kendall and J. D. Gibbons, “Rank Correlation Methods,” Edward Arnold, London, 1990.

 
 
Top