ABSTRACT Long lasting insect repellent curtain fabrics were developed and characterized. Different types of fabrics which are generally used in manufacture of curtain fabrics were functionalized with monochlorotriazenyl β-cyclodextrin (MCT-β-CD) then treated with different concentration from permethrin to impart the fabric insect repellent properties. These fabrics were 100% cotton, cotton/viscose, cotton/linen, polyester/cotton, polyester/linen and polyester/viscose blend fabrics. The treated curtain fabrics were evaluated for insect repellent retention capacity against mosquitoes. The repellent efficacy comprises the determination of percent mosquitoes repelled, knockdown and killed (mortality) resulting from exposed mosquitoes to the treated fabric. Results obtained shows that, the insect repellent retention capacity of curtain fabrics functionalized with R-β-CD then treated with permethrin depends on the amount of β-CD moieties on the curtain fabrics, type of fabric and permethrin concentration. Higher action is obtained when the fabric was functionalized with 100 g/L, MCT-β-CD in alkaline medium followed by treatment with 15 g/L permethrin. The results show also that, curtain fabric made of cotton/linen shows highest mosquitoes repellent retention capacity and highest resistance against washing compared with 100% cotton or cotton/viscose or polyester based curtain fabrics. The insect repellent treatment of curtain fabrics did not adversely affect the tensile strength or drapability index of curtain fabrics
Cite this paper
nullS. Afaf Farag, H. Osama, R. Mohamed and H. Mohamed, "Development of Longer-Lasting Insect Repellence Cellulosic Based Curtain Fabrics," Materials Sciences and Applications, Vol. 2 No. 3, 2011, pp. 200-208. doi: 10.4236/msa.2011.23025.
 WHO, “Insecticide Resistance and Vector Control: 17th Report of the Expert Committee on Insecticides,” WHO Technical Report Series, Vol. 443, 1970, pp. 47-56.
 WHO, “Vectors of Diseases: Hazards and Risks for Travelers—Part I,” WER 25, 2001, pp. 189-194.
 WHO, “Vectors of Diseases: Hazards and Risks for Travelers—Part II,” WER 26, 2001, pp. 201-203.
 WHO, “Environmental Health Criteria 94—Permethrin; International Program on Chemical Safety,” World Health Organization, Geneva, 1990, pp. 26-33.
 D. Young and S. Evans, “Safety and Efficacy of DEET and Permethrin in the Prevention of Arthropod Attack,” Military Medicine, Vol. 163, No. 5, 1998, pp. 1-7.
 H. Staudinger and L. Ruzicka, “über Die Wirksamen Bestandteile Des Dalmatinischen Insektenpulvers,” Helvetica Chimica Acta, Vol. 7, 1924, p. 177. doi:10.1002/hlca.19240070124
 J. M. G. Wainaina, “Pyrethrum Flowers—Production in Africa,” In: E. C. John and B. Q. Gary, Eds., Pyrethrum Flowers, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1995, pp. 49-54.
 C. D. S. Tomlin, “The Pesticide Manual, A World Compendium,” 14th Edition, British Crop Production Council, Alton, 2006.
 R. H. Ian, “Aquatic Organisms and Pyrethroids,” Pesticide Science, Vol. 27, No. 4, 1989, pp. 429-457.
 F. Vogtle, “Supramolecular Chemistry: An Introduction, Chapter 4, Bio-Organic Model Compounds,” John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1993.
 H. J. Buschmann, D. Knittel and E. Schollmeyer, ”Cyclodextrins and Dextrins as New Auxiliaries in Dyeing,” Melliand Textilberichte, Vol. 72, No. 12, 1991, 1012-1014.
 H. J. Buschmann, D. Knittel and E. Schollmeyer, “Resin finishing of Cotton in the Presence of Cyclodextrins for Depositing Fragrances,” Melliand Textilberichte, Vol. 72, No. 3, 1991, pp. E75-E76.
 H. J. Buschmann and E. Schollmeyer, “Textile Material Finished with Polymeric Cyclodextrins, and Method for the Production Thereof,” Journal of lnclusion Phenomena and Molecular Recognition in Chemistry, Vol. 14, 1991, p. 91.
 H. J. Buschmann, D. Knittel and E. Schollmeyer, “Textile Materialien Mit Cyclodextrinen, Textile Materials with Cyclodextrins,” Melliand Textilberichte, Vol. 82, No. 5, 2001, pp. 368-370.
 B. Martel, M. Morcellet, D. Ruffin, F. Vinet and M. Weltrowski, “Capture and Controlled Release of Fragrances by CD Finished Textiles," Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry, Vol. 44, 2003, pp. 439-442. doi:10.1023/A:1023028105012
 B. Martel, M. Morcellet, D. Ruffin, F. Vinet and M. Weltrowski, “Polycarboxylic Acids as Crosslinking Agents for Grafting Cyclodextrins onto Cotton and Wool Fabrics: Study of the Process Parameters,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 83, No. 7, 2002, pp. 1449-1456. doi:10.1002/app.2306
 S. Okano, “Printing of Cellulosic Fibers and Blends,” Japanese Kokai Tokkyo Koho, Vol. 114, 1978, p. 987.
 H. J. Buschmann, D. Knittel and E. Schollmeyer, ‘Possibilities of the Use of Cyclodextrin Dye Complexes in Dyeing Processes,” Textilveredlung, Vol. 31, No. 5-6, 1996, pp. 115-117.
 H. J. Buschmann, U. Dente, D. Knittel and E. Schollmeyer, “Processing Methods for Permanent Fixing of Cyclodextrin Derivatives on Textile Surfaces,” Textilveredlung, Vol. 32, No. 1-2, 1997, pp. 33-39.
 D. Knittel, H. J. Buschmann and E. Schollmeyer, “Finishing of Natural and Synthetic Fibres by Fixation of Cyclodextrin Derivatives,” Textilveredlung, Vol. 26, 1991, p. 92.
 A. Hebeish and Z. H. El-Hilw, “Chemical Finishing of Cotton Using Reactive Cyclodextrin,” Coloration Technology, Vol. 117, No. 2, 2001, pp. 104-110. doi:10.1111/j.1478-4408.2001.tb00343.x
 A. Vogel, “Elementary Practical Inorganic Chemistry Part 3, Quantitative Inorganic Analysis,” 2nd Edition, Longman, London, 1975.
 ASTM, “Breaking Load and Elongation of Textile Fabric”, D-1682-94, 1994.
 ISO 9073-9, “Test Methods for Non-Woven, Part 9. Evaluation of Drapability including Drape Coefficient,” British Standards Institution, 2006.
 N. Kapoor and M. A. Anari, “Laboratory Evaluation of Synthetic Pyrethroid Treated Cotton Fabric against Mosquitoes and other Domestic Pests,” Journal of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 26, 2003, pp. 20-25.