ABSTRACT Different aspects of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are being investigated in details by different research groups in Indian institutes. The spectrum covers measuring technologies, source apportionment and variability studies, all these are in due process of preparing a guideline for the sustainable development in terms of industrial, infrastructural as well as overall growth of the country. Both the outdoor and indoor air quality has significant impact on human health. With special concentration on BTEX and HAPs, the health related investigations are conducted as part of interdisciplinary studies of environmental science. Newer technologies to remove VOCs under specific industrial and practical conditions are getting emerged as a comparatively new era. It addresses fields like adsorption, condensation, pervaporation, biodegradation and catalytic combustion. Besides, different kinds of biofilters have drawn significant attention nowadays. The final selection of appropriate technology depends on type and concentrations of VOCs, extent of separation required and cost involved. All these technologies are although well studied, but could not be adopted for regular commercial usage till date. There is scope to explore new horizons as well as regular monitoring on the introduced pathways to limit VOC emission in the ambient air. This review aims at a concise discussion on all the areas that come under the umbrella of non-methane VOC technologies.
Cite this paper
nullA. Talapatra and A. Srivastava, "Ambient Air Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compound (NMVOC) Study Initiatives in India–A Review," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 2 No. 1, 2011, pp. 21-36. doi: 10.4236/jep.2011.21003.
 Kansal, “Sources and Reactivity of NMHCs and VOCs in the Atmosphere: A Review,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 166, No. 1, 2009, pp. 17-26.
 X. Han and L.P. Naeher, “A Review of Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure Assessment Studies in the Developing World,” Environment International, Vol. 32, No. 1, 2006, pp. 106-120.
 S. S. Rayalu, S. U. Meshram, R. B. Biniwale, A. srivasatava, P. D. Jadav and S. Devotta, “Volatile Organic Carbon Monitoring in Indoor Environment Using a Versatile Hydrophobic Flyash-Based Zeolite as Adsorbent,” Current Science, Vol. 91, No. 4, August 2006, pp. 497-503.
 Srivastava, A. E. Joseph and S. D. Wachasunnder, “Qualitative Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds in Outdoor and Indoor Air,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 96, No. 1-3, 2004, pp. 263-271.
 R. R. Hoque, P. S. Khillare, T. Agerwal, V. Shridhar and S. Balachandran, “Spatial and Temporal Variation of BTEX in the Urban Atmosphere of Delhi, India,” Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 392, No. 1, 2008, pp. 30- 40. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.08.036
 A. Srivastava, “Variability in VOC Concentrations in an Urban Area of Delhi,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 107, No. 1-3, 2005, pp. 363-373.
 A. Srivastava, A. E. Joseph and S. Devotta, “Volatile Organic Compounds in Ambient Air of Mumbai—India,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 40, No. 5, 2006, pp. 892- 903. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.10.045
 D. Majumdar (neé Som), C. Dutta, A.K. Mukherjee and S. Sen, “Source Apportionment of VOCs at the Petrol Pumps in Kolkata, India; Exposure of Workers and Assessment of Associated Health Risk,” Transportation Research Part D, Vol. 13, No. 8, 2008, pp. 524-530.
 A. Srivastava, A. E. Joseph, S. Patila, A. More, R. C. Dixit and M. Prakash, “Air Toxics in Ambient Air of Delhi,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 39, No. 1, 2005, pp. 59-71. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.09.053
 P. K. Padhy and C. K. Varshney, “Total Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (TNMVOC) in the Atmosphere of Delhi,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 34, No. 4, 2000, pp. 577-584.
 A. Srivastava, “Source Apportionment of Ambient VOCS in Mumbai City,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 38, No. 39, 2004, pp. 6829-6843.
 A. Srivastava, A. E. Joseph, A. More and S. Patil, “Emissions of VOCs at Urban Petrol Retail Distribution Centres in India (Delhi and Mumbai),” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 109, No. 1-3, 2005, pp. 227-242.
 M. Mohan Rao, G. G. Pandit, P. Sain, S. Sharma, T. M. Krishnamoorthy and K. S. V. Nambi, “Non-Methane Hydrocarbons in Industrial Locations of Bombay,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 31, No. 7, 1997, pp. 1077-1085.
 Srivastava, B. Sengupta and S. A. Dutta, “Source Apportionment of Ambient VOCs in Delhi City,” Science of Total Environment, Vol. 343, No. 1-3, 2005, pp. 207-220.
 P. S. Khillare, R. R. Hoque, V. Shridhar, T. Agarwal and S. Balachandran, “Temporal Variability of Benzene Concentration in the ambient Air of Delhi: A Comparative Assessment of Pre- and Post-CNG Periods,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 154, No. 1-3, 2008, pp. 1013- 1018. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.11.006
 B. Gurjar, J. A. Van Aardenne, J. Lelieveld and M. Mohan, “Emission Estimates and Trends (1990-2000) for Megacity Delhi and Implications,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 38, No. 33, 2004, pp. 5663-5681.
 G. Samanta, G. Chattopadhyay, B. K. Mandal, T. Roy Chowdhury, P. P. Chowdhury, C. R. Chanda, P. Banerjee, D. Lodh, D. Das and D. Chakraborty, “Air Pollution in Calcutta during Winter–A Three-Year Study,” Current Science, Vol. 75, No. 2, July 1998, pp. 123-138.
 “Ambient Air Quality Status of Kolkata with Reference to Ozone, VOCs Including Carbonyls,” Report Submitted by NEERI to Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi, February 2010
 P. K. Srivastava, G. G. Pandit, S. Sharma and A. M. Mohan Rao, “Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Environments in Mumbai, India,” The Science of the Total Environment Vol. 255, No. 1, 2000, pp. 161-168.
 R. Vasani, A. Srivastava and S. Wachasunder, “Health Effects of Indoor VOCs and Its Identification by GC- MS,” ISMAS Silver Jubilee Symposium on Mass Spectrometry, NIO Dona Paula, Goa, 27-31 January 2003.
 S. Patil, A. Srivastava and S. Wachasunder, “Qualitative and Quantitative Estimation of Volatile Organic Compounds inside Parked Car,” ISMAS Silver Jubilee Symposium on Mass Spectrometry, NIO Dona Paula, Goa, 27-31 January 2003.
 Som, C. Dutta, A. Chatterjee, D. Mallick, T. K. Jana and S. Sen, “Studies on Commuters’ Exposure to BTEX in Passenger Cars in Kolkata, India,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 372, No. 2-3, 2007, pp. 426-432.
 P. K. Srivastava, G. G. Pandit, S. Sharma and A. M. M. Rao, “Ambient Levels of Benzene and Other Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Mumbai,” Proceedings of Nature on Environment, B’lore Univ, June 2000.
 A. Srivastava, S. N. Nair and A. E. Joseph, “Ambient Concentration of Benzene in Air Due to Vehicular Movement in Mumbai,” Current Science, Vol. 91, No. 10, November 2006, pp. 1-5.
 A. Srivastava, A. E. Joseph and S. Nair, “Ambient Levels of Benzene in Mumbai City,” International Journal of Environmental Health Research, Vol. 14, No. 3, June 2004, pp. 215-222.
 A. Srivastava and R. N. Singh, “Use of Multimedia Mass Balance Model to Predict Concentrations of Benzene in Microenvironment in Air,” Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2005, pp. 1-5.
 Dutta, D. Som, A. Chatterjee, A. K. Mukherjee, T. K. Jana and S. Sen, “Mixing Ratios of Carbonyls and BTEX in Ambient Air of Kolkata, India and Their Associated Health Risk,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 148, No. 1-4, 2009, pp. 97-107.
 B. K. Padhi and P. K. Padhy, “Urinary Phenol as a Biomarker of Exposure to Benzene from Occupational Exposures,” International Conference on Biomarkers in Health and Environmental Management & XXXII Annual Meet of Environmental Mutagen Society of India, Coimbatore, 10-12 January 2007.
 P. K. Padhy, “Plants and Air Pollution, Current Issues in Environmental and Fish Biology,” Proceedings of UGC- DSA National Seminar on Environmental and Fish Biology, Shantiniketan, 1-3 February 2002.
 P. K. Padhy and C. K. Varshney, “Emission of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from Tropical Plant Species in India,” Chemosphere, Vol. 59, No. 11, 2005, pp. 1643- 1653. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.01.046
 P. K. Padhy and C. K. Varshney, “Isoprene Emission from Tropical Tree Species,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 135, 2005, pp. 101-109.
 Srivastava and D. Som, “Hazardous Air Pollutants in Industrial Area of Mumbai–India,” Chemosphere, Vol. 69, 2007, pp. 458-468.
 A. K. Mukherjee, S. K. Bhattacharya, S. Ahmed, S. K. Roy, A. Roychowdhury and S. Sen, “Exposure of Drivers and Conductors to Noise, Heat, Dust and Volatile Organic Compounds in the State Transport Special Buses of Kolkata City,” Transportation Research Part D, Vol. 8, 2003, pp. 11-19.
 P. Chitralekha, M. Balaji, S. Subramanian and D. P. Padiyan, “Sensing Properties of Polyoxomolybdate Doped Polyaniline Nanomaterials for Oxidising and Reducing Volatile Organic Compounds,” Current Applied Physics, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2010, pp. 457-467.
 K. Ghoshal and S. D. Manjare, “Selection of Appropriate Adsorption Technique for Recovery of VOCs: An Analysis,” Journal of Loss prevention in the Process Industries, Vol. 15, No. 6, 2002, pp. 413-421.
 F. I. Khan and A. K. Ghoshal, “Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds from Polluted Air,” Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, Vol. 13, 2000, pp. 527-545. doi:10.1016/S0950-4230(00)00007-3
 V. Gupta and N. Verma, “Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds by Cryogenic Condensation Followed by Adsorption,” Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 57, 2002, pp. 2679-2696.
 P. Dwivedi, V. Gaur, A. Sharma and N. Verma, “Comparative Study of Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds by Cryogenic Condensation and Adsorption by Activated Carbon Fiber,” Separation and Purification Technology, Vol. 39, 2004, pp. 23-37.
 Das, V. Gaur and N. Verma, “Removal of Volatile Organic Compound by Activated Carbon Fiber,” Carbon, Vol. 42, 2004, pp. 2949-2962.
 N. Mohan, G. K. Kannan, S. Upendra, R. Subha and N. S. Kumar, “Breakthrough of Toluene Vapours in Granular Activated Carbon Filled Packed Bed Reactor,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 168, No. 1, 2009, pp. 777- 781. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.02.079
 Das, A. K. Banthia and B. Adhikari, “Removal of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Contaminants from Water by Pervaporation Using a Novel Polyurethane Urea–Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) Interpenetrating Network Membrane,” Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 61, 2006, pp. 6454-6467. doi:10.1016/j.ces.2006.06.014
 S. Ray, N. R. Singha and S. K. Ray, “Removal of Tetrahydrofuran (THF) from Water by Pervaporation Using Homo and Blend Polymeric Membranes,” Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 149, No. 1-3, 2009, pp. 153-161.
 S. M. Maliyekkal, E. R. Rene, L. Philip and T. Swaminathan, “Performance of BTX Degraders under Substrate Versatility Conditions,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. B109, 2004, pp. 201-211.
 Singh and M. H. Fulekar, “Benzene Bioremediation Using Cow Dung Microflora in Two Phase Partitioning Bioreactor,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 175, No. 1-3, 2010, pp. 336-343.
 S. M. Prakash and S. K. Gupta, “Biodegradation of Tetrachloroethylene in Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 72, No. 1, 2000, pp. 47-54. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(99)90090-1
 S. Mudliar, B. Giri, K. Padoley, D. Satpute, R. Dixit, P. Bhatt, R. Pandey, A. Juwarkar and A. Vaidya, “Bioreactors for Treatment of VOCs and Odours – A Review,” Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 91, No. 5, 2010, pp. 1039-1054. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.01.006
 E. R. Rene, D. V. S. Murthy and T. Swaminathan, “Performance Evaluation of a Compost Biofilter Treating Toluene Vapours,” Process Biochemistry, Vol. 40, No. 8, 2005, pp. 2771-2779.
 R. S. Singh, S. S. Agnihotri and S. N. Upadhyay, “Removal of Toluene Vapour Using Agro-Waste as Biofilter Media,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 97, No. 18, 2006, pp. 2296-2301.
 A. K. Mathur, J. Sundaramurthy and C. Balomajumder, “Kinetics of the Removal of Mono-Chlorobenzene Vapour from Waste Gases Using a Trickle Bed Air Biofilter,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. B137, 2006, pp. 1560-1568. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.04.042
 A. K. Mathur, C. B. Majumdar and S. Chatterjee, “Combined Removal of BTEX in Air Stream by Using Mixture of Sugar Cane Bagasse, Compost and GAC as Biofilter Media,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 148, 2007, pp. 64-74. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.02.030
 T. Mishra, P. Mohapatra and K. M. Parida, “Synthesis, Characterisation and Catalytic Evaluation of Iron-Manganese Mixed Oxide Pillared Clay for VOC Decomposition Reaction,” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Vol. 79, 2008, pp. 279-285. doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2007.10.030
 K. M. Parida and A. Samal, “Catalytic Combustion of Volatile Organic Compounds on Indian Ocean Manganese Nodules,” Applied Catalysis A: General, Vol. 182, No. 2, 1999, pp. 249-256.
 S. K. Samantaray and K. M. Parida, “Modified TiO2– SiO2 Mixed Oxides: 1. Effect of Manganese Concentration and Activation Temperature towards Catalytic Combustion of Volatile Organic Compounds,” Applied Catalysis B: Environment, Vol. 57, 2005, pp. 83-91.
 C. S. Maji and A. N. Bhaskarwar, “Pollution-Preventing Anionic Lithographic Inks,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. B105, 2003, pp. 103-119.
 N. Srivastava, A. Roy, N. Pant, H. Nagpal, C. R. Vohra and A. N. Bhaskarwar, “Pollution Preventing Microemulsion Inks,” Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 60, 2005, pp. 1725-1731.
 K. S. Nesamani, “Estimation of Automobile Emissions and Control Strategies in India,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 408, No. 8, 2010, pp. 1800-1811.
 S. Patil, A. More and A. Srivastava, “Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Volatile Organic Emissions from Vehicle Tyres,” Pollution Research, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2004, pp. 681-686.