AE  Vol.2 No.1 , January 2014
Toxicity and feeding response of adult corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to an organic spinosad formulation in sucrose solution
ABSTRACT
Adult corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), feeds on plant exudates soon after emergence from pupa in their natural habitat, and thereafter disperses to suitable host plants for reproduction. The intent of this study was to determine if EntrustTM, an organic formulation of spinosad, could be used in a behavioral-based pest management strategy to control H. zea in organic farming systems. In the laboratory, we evaluated the response of the corn earworm to Entrust mixed with sugar solution relative to ingestion, toxicity and proboscis extension. The sucrose solution served as a feeding stimulant and simulated the plant exudate. Lethal concentration of Entrust (LC50 with 95% CLs) for male corn earworm captured in pheromone-baited traps was 0.48 (0.43 - 0.53) mgL-1 for 24 h response. Mean lethal time was 2.56 ± 0.13 h with ingestion of Entrust at 50 mg·L-1. A lethal dose of Entrust at 1000 mg·L-1 inhibited neither ingestion nor proboscis extension response of the insect. A detailed study of the adult corn earworm in the laboratory relative to toxicity after ingestion of Entrust indicates that the pesticide has potential to control the insect when used in an insecticidal bait formulation as part of an attract-and- kill system. Field studies are needed to support the conclusion.

Cite this paper
López, J. , Latheef, M. and Hoffmann, W. (2014) Toxicity and feeding response of adult corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to an organic spinosad formulation in sucrose solution. Advances in Entomology, 2, 33-41. doi: 10.4236/ae.2014.21006.
References
[1]   Crouse, G.D. and Sparks, T.C. (1998) Naturally derived materials as products and leads for insect control: The spinosyns. Reviews in Toxicology, 2, 133-146.

[2]   Thompson, G.D., Dutton, R. and Sparks, T.C. (2000) Spinosad—A case study: An example from a natural products discovery programme. Pest Management Science, 56, 696-702. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1526-4998(200008)56:8<696::AID-PS182>3.0.CO;2-5

[3]   Salgado, V.L. and Sparks, T.C. (2005) The spinosyns: Chemistry, biochemistry, mode of action, and resistance. In: Gilbert. L.I., Latrou, K. and Gill, S.S., Eds., Comprehensive Molecular Insect Science, Elsevier, Oxford, 137-173.

[4]   Dimitri, C. and Greene, C. (2000) Recent growth patterns in the U. S. organic foods market, 1-21. www.ers.usda.gov/aib777

[5]   USDA News Release (2013) Release No. 0096. www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdamediafb?contentid=2013/05/0096

[6]   Willer, H. and Lernoud, J. (2013) The world of organic agriculture. The results of latest survey on organic agriculture worldwide. BioFach Congress 2013, Nürnberg Session, The World of Organic Agriculture, FiBL and IFOAM Publications. http://orgprints.org/22324/1/willer-lernoud-2013-world-of-organic.pdf

[7]   Joyce, R.J.V. (1981) A critical review of the role of chemical pesticides in Heliothis management. In: Reed, W., Ed., Proceedings of International Workshop, Heliothis Management, ICRISAT, Patancheru, 173-188.

[8]   Leonova, I.N. and Slynko, N.M. (1996) Comparative study of insecticide susceptibility and activities of detoxifying enzymes in larvae and adults of cotton bollworm. Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, 32, 157-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6327(1996)32:2<157::AID-ARCH1>3.0.CO;2-W

[9]   Lingren, P.D., Raulston, J.R. and Wann, E.V. (1988) Emergence and dispersal of adult corn earworms. In: Motes, J. Ed., Proceedings of 6th Annual Horticulture Industry Show, Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, 73-77.

[10]   Lingren, P.D., Warner, W.B., Raulston, J.R., Kehat, M., Henneberry, T.J., Pair, S.D., Zvirgzdins, A. and Gillespie, J.M. (1988) Observations on the emergence of adults from nocturnal populations of the corn earworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie). Environmental Entomology, 17, 254-258.

[11]   Beerwinkle, K.R., Shaver, T.N. and Lopez Jr., J.D. (1993) Field observations of adult emergence and feeding behavior of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on dallisgrass ergot honeydew. Environmental Entomology, 22, 554-558.

[12]   Lopez Jr., J.D., Shaver, T.N., Beerwinkle, K.R. and Lingren, P.D. (2000) Feeding attractant and stimulant for adult control of noctuid and/or other lepidopteran species. US patent No. 6 074634.

[13]   Zehnder, G., Gurr, G.M., Kühne, S., Wade, M.R., Wratten, S.D. and Wade, M.R. (2007) Arthropod pest management in organic crops. Annual Review of Entomology, 52, 57-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ento.52.110405.091337

[14]   López Jr., J.D. and Lingren, P.D. (1994) Feeding response of adult Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to commercial phagostimulants. Journal of Economic Entomology, 87, 1653-1658.

[15]   Clemens, C.G. (1996) Effects of feeding stimulant and insecticide mixtures on feeding response and mortality of adult male corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). MS Thesis, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.

[16]   Lopez Jr., J.D., Latheef, M.A. and Hoffmann, W.C. (2010) Effect of emamectin benzoate on mortality, proboscis extension, gustation and reproduction of the corn earworm. Journal of Insect Science, 10, 1-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1673/031.010.8901

[17]   J?rgensen, K., Kavello, P., Almaas, T. J. and Mustaparta, H. (2006) Two closely located areas in the suboesophageal ganglion and the tritocerebrum receive projections of the gustatory receptor neurons located on the antennae and the proboscis in the moth Heliothis virescens. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 496, 121-134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cne.20908

[18]   López Jr., J.D., Lingren, P.D. and Bull, D.L. (1995) Proboscis extension response of adult Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to dry sugars. Journal of Economic Entomology, 88, 1271-1278.

[19]   User’s Guide Version 9.3 (2008) SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina.

[20]   Robertson, J.L. and Priesler, H.K. (1992) Pesticide bioassays with arthropods. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

[21]   Payton, M.E., Greenstone, M.H. and Schenker, N. (2003) Overlapping confidence intervals or standard error intervals: What do they mean in terms of statistical significance? Journal of Insect Science, 3, 34. http://insectscience.org/3.34/

[22]   Saxton, A. (2012) User’s guide for design and analysis SAS macro collection DandA.SAS. Department of Animal Science, University of Tennessee, Tennessee.

[23]   López Jr., J.D., Latheef, M.A. and Hoffmann, W.C. (2011) Mortality and reproductive effects of ingested spinosad on adult bollworms. Pest Management Science, 67, 220-225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.2055

[24]   Daly, J.G. and Fitt, G.P. (1990) Monitoring for pyrethroid resistance in relation to body weight in adult Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 83, 705-709.

[25]   Robertson, J.L., Russell, R.M., Preisler, H.K. and Savin, N.E. (2007) Bioassays with arthropods. 2nd Edition, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton.

[26]   J?rgensen, K., Almaas, T.J., Marion-Poll, F. and Mustaparta, H. (2007) Electrophysiological characterization of responses from gustatory receptor neurons of sensilla chaetica in the moth Heliothis virescens. Chemical Senses, 32, 863-879. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjm057

[27]   Del Socorro, A.P., Gregg, P.C. and Howes, A.J. (2010) Development of a synthetic plant volatile-based attracticide for female noctuid moths. III. Insecticides for adult Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Australian Journal of Entomology, 49, 31-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-6055.2009.00735.x

[28]   Annie’s Prospectus (2011) http://www.annies.com

[29]   Peters, M. (2013) A gap in organic food chain. The Wall Street Journal, Dow Jones & Co., New York.

[30]   Cole, Y. (2000) Mortality of adult Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn and cotton treated with a feeding-based attracticide. MS Thesis, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.

[31]   Callahan, P.S. and Casio, T. (1963) Histology of the reproductive traits and transmission of sperm in the corn earworm, Heliothis zea. Annals of Entomological Society of America, 56, 535-556.

 
 
Top