The aim of this study is to determine the transfer factor soil-to-plant and to assess the concentration level of natural and artificial radionuclide (238U, 226Ra, 228Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs) in samples from Saluga and Ghazal Protectorate area in Aswan, Egypt, by using High Pure Germanium detector (HPGe) Environmental Radioactivity Measurements Labrotary in faculty of science Qena. Reported values for natural radionuclides ranged from 8.81 ± 0.64 to 28.88 ± 2.10, from 6.98 ± 0.51 to 26.01 ± 1.89, from 12.29 ± 0.89 to 33.32 ± 2.43, from 12.53 ± 0.91 to 32.81 ± 2.39 and from 383.90 ± 27.95 to 711.98 ± 51.83 Bq.kg-1 for 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. 137Cs activity concentration was found to be in the range from 0.36 ± 0.03 to 9.73 ± 0.71 Bq.kg-1 and was calculated through transfer factor TF reported in this article.
Cite this paper
S. Harb, A. El-Kamel, A. El-Mageed, A. Abbady and W. Rashed, "Radioactivity Levels and Soil-to-Plant Transfer Factor of Natural Radionuclides from Protectorate Area in Aswan, Egypt," World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology
, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2014, pp. 7-15. doi: 10.4236/wjnst.2014.41002
 F. Vera Tome, M. P. Blanco Rodríguez and J. C. Lozano, “Soil-to-Plant Transfer Factors for Natural Radionuclides and Stable Elements in a Mediterranean Area” Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Vol. 65, 2003, pp. 161-175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0265-931X(02)00094-2
 S. Golmakani, V. M. ahabi Moghaddam and T. Hosseini, “Factors Affecting the Transfer of Radionuclides from the Environment to Plants,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Vol. 130, No. 3, 2008, pp. 1-8.
 International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), “Age-Dependant Dose to Member of the Public from Intake of Radionuclides. Part 11. Publication-67,” Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1993
 M. I. Gaso, N. Segovia, M. L. Cervantes, T. Herrera, E. Perez-Silva, and E. Acosta, “Internal Radiation Dose from 137Cs Due to the Consumption of Mushrooms from a Mexican Temperate Mixed Forest,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Vol. 87, 2000, pp. 213-216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.rpd.a033000
 A. Abbady, “Level of Natural Radionuclides in Foodstuffs and Resultant Annual Ingestion Radiation Dose,” Nuclear Science and Techniques, Vo1. 17, No. 5, 2006, pp. 297-300.
 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), “Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Temperate Environments,” Technical Report Series No. 364, Vienna, 1994
 M. J. Frissel, “Protocol for the Experimental Determination of Soil to Plant Transfer Factors (Concentration Ratios) to Be Used in Radiological Assessment Models,” UIR Newsletter, Vol. 28, 1997, pp. 5-8.
 A. Abbady, N. K, Ahmed, A. H. El-Kamel, F. Steinhasular, A. M. El-Arabi, “Field Measurements of Radon-222 in Soil Using Alphaguard and E-PERM Electret,” Nuclear Science Journal, Vol. 37, No. 2, 2000, pp. 122-134.
 A. M. El-Arabi, “Natural Radioactivity in Sand Used in Thermal Therapy at the Red Sea Coast,” Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Vol. 81, 2005, pp. 11-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2004.11.002
 A. M. El-Arabi, N. K. Ahmed, A. H. El-Kamel, “Gamma Spectroscopic Analysis of Powdered Granite Samples in Some Eastern Desert’S Areas,” Arab Journal of Nuclear Science and Applications, Vol. 34, 2001, pp. 245-255.
 N. K. Ahmed, A. M. El Arabi, H. M. Mahmoud and K. Salahel-din, ”Measurement of Natural Radioactivity and Its Significant Hazards of Some Hematite Samples in Eastern Desert, Egypt,” Building and Environment, Vol. 42, 2007, pp. 2263-2267.
 M. H. Said, A. Abbady, A. H. El-Kamel and A. M. El-Arabi, “Natural Radioactivity of Granite Rocks in Wadi Qena,” Radiation Physics and Chemistry, Vol. 44 No. 1/2, 1994, p. 95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0969-806X(94)90112-0
 S. Harb, A. H. El-Kamel, A. I. Abd El-Mageed, A. Abbady and W. Rashed, “Concentration of U-238, U-235, Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-232 and K-40 for Some Igneous Rock Samples in Eastern Desert of Egypt,” The 3rd Environmental Physics Congress, Aswan, 2008, pp. 215-222.
 M. M. Isam Salih, H. B. L. Pettersson and E. Lund, “Uranium and Thorium Series Radionuclides in Drinking Water from Drilled Bedrock Wells: Correlation to Geology and Bedrock Radioactivity and Dose Estimation,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Vol. 102, No. 3, 2002, pp. 249-258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.rpd.a006093
 Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), “Reference Title,” US Department of Energy, Washington DC, 1990.
 K. Yanagisawa, Y. Muramatsu and H. Kamada, “Tracer Experiments on the Transfer of Technetium from soil to Rice and Wheat Plants,” Radioisotopes, Vol. 41, 1992, pp. 397-402.
 F. W. Whicker, T. G. Hinton, K. A. Orlandini and S. B. Clark, “Uptake of Natural and Anthropogenic Actinides in Vegetable Crops Grown on a Contaminated Lake Bed,” Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Vol. 45, 1999, pp. 1-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0265-931X(98)00076-9
 S. Harb, “On the Human Radiation Exposure as Derived from the Analysis of Natural and Man-Made Radionuclides in soil,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Institute for Radiation Protection and Radioecology, ZSR, Hannover University, Hannover, 2004.