ACES  Vol.4 No.1 , January 2014
Reclamation of Mercury from Used Silver Oxide Watch Batteries
Abstract: This paper deals with the reclamation of mercury from the used silver oxide quartz wristwatch batteries employing leaching-cementation technique. The used batteries are first crushed to liberate the encapsulated active material from the case which is leached in nitric acid to bring all metal contents into solution. After the removal of silver in the solution as silver chloride by precipitation, the mercury which is present as Hg2+ in the solution has been reclaimed through cementation with zinc dust. Various effects like zinc sheet and dust, zinc quantity, pH of the solution, duration and temperature have been carried out to standardise the conditions for maximum mercury reclamation. At a temperature of 45℃ and at 3.9 pH, 92.3% of mercury was recovered using 74 μm size zinc dust with purity greater than 99.78% and the same is characterized by XRF and the results are discussed.
Cite this paper: Sathaiyan, N. (2014) Reclamation of Mercury from Used Silver Oxide Watch Batteries. Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science, 4, 1-6. doi: 10.4236/aces.2014.41001.

[1]   C. L. Mantell, “Batteries and Energy Systems,” Mc GrawHill Book Co., New York, 1970, pp. 90-91.

[2]   N. Sathaiyan, V. Nandakumar and P. Ramachandran, “Hydrometallurgical Recovery of Silver from Waste Silver Oxide Button Cells,” Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 161, 2006, pp. 1463-1468.

[3]   C. J. Beyke, “Houshold Battery Recycling in the United States,” G. W. Warren, Ed., EPD Congress, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 1995, pp. 491-502.

[4]   J. Frenay and S. Feron, “Domestic Battery Recycling in Western Europe,” Proceedings of Second International Symposium on Recycling of Metals and Engineered Materials, Vol. 2, 1990, pp. 639-647.

[5]   N. Reutlinger and D. De Grassi, “Household Battery Recycling: Numerous Obstacles, Few Solutions,” Resource Recycling, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1991, pp. 24-29.

[6]   J. P. Wiaux, A. Indaco and A. Lazouni, “Collecting, Sorting and Recycling Spent Batteries,” Geneva, 1993.

[7]   B. Ames, “Private Communication,” Alexander Batteries, 1994, unpublished.

[8]   T. Andolino, “Private Communication,” Alexander Batteries, 1994, unpublished.

[9]   S. Yoshizaki and T. Tomida, “Principle and Process of Heavy Metal Removal from Sewage Sludge,” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 34, No. 8, 2000, pp. 1572-1575.

[10]   P. Kamaraj, S. Jacob and D. Srinivasan, “Removal of Heavy Metals from Waste Water by Sulphide Precipitation Technique,” Bulletin of Electrochemistry, Vol. 5, No. 8, 1989, pp. 572-574.

[11]   T. Uenishi and I. Junnosuke, “Metals Recovery from Spent Silver Oxide Batteries,” Japan Patent No. 6036827, 1985.

[12]   H. A. Flaschka, “EDTA Titrations,” Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1964, p. 71.

[13]   A. L. Anacleto and J. R. Carvalho, “Mercury Cementation from Chloride Solutions Using Iron, Zinc and Aluminium,” Minerals Engineering, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1996, pp. 385-397.

[14]   Y. Ku, M.-H. Wu and Y.-S. Shen, “Mercury Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Zinc Cementation,” Waste Management, Vol. 22, No. 7, 2002, pp. 721-726.