Back
 AJPS  Vol.5 No.1 , January 2014
Inaccuracies in Phytic Acid Measurement: Implications for Mineral Biofortification and Bioavailability
Abstract: Biofortification of commonly eaten staple food crops with essential mineral micronutrients is a potential sustainable solution to global micronutrient malnutrition. Because phytic acid (PA; 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis myo-inositol) reduces mineral micronutrient bioavailability, reduction of PA levels could increase the bioavailability of biofortified iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg). PA is viewed as an anti-nutrient, yet PA and other inositol phosphates have also demonstrated positive health benefits. Phytic acid analysis in the agricultural, food, and nutritional sciences is typically carried out by colorimetry and chromatographic techniques. In addition, advanced techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance and synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy have also been used in phytic acid analysis. The colorimetric analysis may overestimate PA levels and synchrotron X-ray absorption techniques may not detect very low levels of inositol phosphates. This short communication discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each widely used phytic acid analysis method, and suggests high performance anion exchange (HPAE) chromatography with conductivity detection (CD) based analysis can achieve greater accuracy for the identification and quantification of inositol phosphates. Accurate characterization and quantification of PA and inositol phosphates will inform PA reduction and biofortification efforts, allowing retention of the benefits of non-phytic inositol phosphates for both plants and humans.
Cite this paper: P. Thavarajah and D. Thavarajah, "Inaccuracies in Phytic Acid Measurement: Implications for Mineral Biofortification and Bioavailability," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 5 No. 1, 2014, pp. 29-34. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.51005.
References

[1]   N. R. Natubu and P. Markakis, “Effect of Fermentation Time on the Inositol Phosphates of Bread,” Journal of Food Sciences, Vol. 48, No. 1, 1983, pp. 262-263.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1983.tb14841.x

[2]   M. Larson and A. S. Sandberg, “Phytate Reduction in Bread Containing Oat Flour, Oat Bran or Rye Bran,” Journal of Cereal Science, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1991, pp. 141-149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0733-5210(09)80135-5

[3]   M. Brune, L. Rossander-Hulten, L. Hallberg, A. Gleerup and A. S. Sandberg, “Iron Absorption from Bread in Humans: Inhibiting Effects of Cereal Fiber, Phytate and Inositol Phosphates with Different Numbers of Phosphate Groups,” The Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 122, 1992, pp. 442-449.

[4]   S. S. Archana and A. Kawatra, “Reduction of Polyphenols and Phytic Acid Content of Pearl Miller Grains by Malting and Balancing,” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, Vol. 53, 1998, pp. 93-98.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008060604880

[5]   E. Graf and F. R. Dintzis, “Determination of Phytic Acid in Foods by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 30, No. 6, 1982, pp. 1094-1097.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf00114a022

[6]   F. Crea, C. De Stefano, D. Milea and S. Sammartano, “Formation and Stability of Phytate Complexes in Solution,” Coordination Chemistry Reviews, Vol. 252, 2008, pp. 1108-1120.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2007.09.008

[7]   V. Raboy, “Progress in Breeding Low Phytate Crops,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 132, No. 3, 2002, pp. 503S-505S.

[8]   R. Pilu, D. Panzeri, G. Gavazzi, S. K. Rasmussen, G. Consonni and E. Nielsen, “Phenotypic, Genetic and Molecular Characterization of a Maize Low Phytic Acid Mutant (lpa241),” Theoretical. Applied Genetics, Vol. 107, 2003, pp. 980-987.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-003-1316-y

[9]   M. J. Guttieri, K. M. Peterson and E. J. Souza, “Agronomic Performance of Low Phytic Acid Wheat,” Crop Science, Vol. 46, 2006, pp. 2623-2629.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2006.01.0008

[10]   S. R. Larson, J. N. Rutger, K. A. Young and V. Raboy, “Isolation and Genetic Mapping of a Non-Lethal Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Low Phytic Acid 1 Mutation,” Crop Science, Vol. 40, No. 5, 2000, pp. 1397-1405.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2000.4051397x

[11]   V. Raboy, P. F. Gerbasi, K. A. Young, S. D. Stoneberg, S. G. Pickett, A. T. Bauman, P. P. N. Murthy, W. F. Sheridan and D. S. Ertl, “Origin and Seed Phosphate of Maze Low Phytic Acid 1-1 and Low Phytic Acid 2-1,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 124, No. 1, 2000, pp. 335-368.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.124.1.355

[12]   J. R. Wilcox, G. S. Premachandra, K. A. Young and V. Raboy, “Isolation of High Seed Inorganic P, Low-Phytate Soybean Mutants,” Crop Science, Vol. 40, 2000, pp. 1601-1605.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2000.4061601x

[13]   D. S. Ertl, K. A. Young and V. Raboy, “Plant Genetic Approaches to Phosphorus Management in Agricultural Production,” Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1998, pp. 299-304.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq1998.00472425002700020008x

[14]   Y. C. Li, D. R. Edoux, T. L. Veum, V. Raboy and D. S. Ertl, “Effects of Low Phytic Acid Corn on Phosphorus Utilization Performance, and Bone Mineralization in Broiler Chicks,” Poultry Science, Vol. 79, 2000, pp. 1444-1450.

[15]   C. H. Fox and M. Eberl, “Phytic Acid (IP6), Novel Broad Spectrum Anti-Neoplastic Agent: A Systematic Review,” Complementary Therapies in Medicine, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2002, pp. 229-234.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0965-2299(02)00092-4

[16]   D. Oberleas, “Determination of Phytate and Inositol Phosphates,” Methods of Biochemical Analysis, Vol. 20, 1971, pp. 87-101.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470110393.ch3

[17]   I. A. Vaintraub and N. A. Lapteva, “Colorimetric Determination of Phytate in Unpurified Extracts of Seed and the Products of Their Processing,” Analytical Biochemistry, Vol. 175, No. 1, 1988, pp. 227-230.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(88)90382-X

[18]   N. Wang, D. W. Hatcher, R. Toews and E. J. Gawalko, “Influence of Cooking and Dehulling on Nutritional Composition of Several Varieties of Lentils (Lens culinaris),” Food Science and Technology, Vol. 42, No. 4, 2009, pp. 842-848.

[19]   B. Campion, F. Sparvoli, E. Doria, G. Tagliabue, I. Galasso, M. Fileppi, R. Bollini and E. Nielson, “Isolation and Characterization of an Lpa (Low Phytic Acid) Mutant in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.),” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, Vol. 118, No. 6, 2009, pp. 1211-1221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-009-0975-8

[20]   B. W. Agranoff, “Phosphorylated Derivatives of Myo-Inositol,” Federation Proceedings, Vol. 45, No. 11, 1986, pp. 2629-2633.

[21]   P. Scholz, G. Bergmann and G. W. Mayr, “Methods in Inositide Research,” In: R. F. Irvine, Ed., In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology, Raven Press, Ltd., New York, 1990, pp. 65-82.

[22]   V. Raboy, “Myo-Inositon-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-Hexakisphosphate,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 64, No. 6, 2003, pp. 1033-1043. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(03)00446-1

[23]   V. Raboy and P. Gerbasi, “Genetics of Myo-Inositol Phosphate Synthesis and Accumulation,” Subcellular Biochemistry, Vol. 26, 2006, pp. 275-285.

[24]   S. T. Safrany, J. J. Caffrey, X. Yang and S. B. Shears, “Diphosphoinositol Polyphosphates: The Final Frontier for Inositide Research?” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 380, No. 7-8, 1999, pp. 945-951.

[25]   L. A. Hankahi and S. C. West, “Specific Interaction of IP6 with Human Ku70/80, the DNA-Binding Subunit of DNA-PK,” The European Molecular Biology Organzation Journal, Vol. 21, No. 8, 2002, pp. 2038-2044.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/emboj/21.8.2038

[26]   A. Saiardi, C. Sciambi, J. M. McCaffery, B. Wendland and S. H. Snyder, “Inositol Pyrophosphate Regulate Endocytic Trafficking,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 99, No. 22, 2002, pp. 14206-14211.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.212527899

[27]   E. Graf, K. L. Empson and J. W. Eaton, “Phytic Acid. A Natural Antioxidant,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 262, No. 24, 1987, pp. 11647-11650.

[28]   E. Graf and J. W. Eaton, “Antioxidant Functions of Phytic Acid,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Vol. 8, 1990, pp. 61-69.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0891-5849(90)90146-A

[29]   P. Thavarajah, D. Thavarajah and A. Vandenberg, “Low Phytic Acid Lentils (Lens culinaris L.) A Potential Solution for Increased Micronutrient Bioavailability,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 57, No. 19, 2009, pp. 9044-9049. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf901636p

[30]   N. R. Reddy and M. D. Pierson, “Isolation and Partial Characterization of Phytic Acid-Rich Particles from Great Northern Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.),” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 52, 1987, pp. 109-112.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1987.tb13983.x

[31]   S. B. Elhardallou and A. F. Walker, “Phytic Acid Content of Three Legumes in the Row, Cooked and Fibre Forms,” Phytochemical Analysis, Vol. 5, 1994, pp. 243-246.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pca.2800050505

[32]   J. B. Ohlrogge and T. P. Kerman, “Oxygen-Dependent Aging of Seeds,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 70, No. 3, 1982, pp. 791-794. http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.70.3.791

[33]   S. Plammi, “Myoinositol Phosphates: Analysis, Content in Foods and Effects in Nutrition,” Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie, Vol. 30, 1997, pp. 633-647.

[34]   P. Talamond, S. Doulbeau, I. Rochette, J. P. Guyot and S. Treche, “Anion-Exchange High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Conductivity Detection for the Analysis of Phytic Acid in Food,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 871, No. 1-2, 2000, pp. 7-12.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(99)01226-1

[35]   E. Skoglund, N. Carlsson and A. Sandberg, “Determination of Isomers of Inositol Monoto Hexaphosphates in Selected Food and Intestinal Contents Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 45, 1997, pp. 431-436.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf9603238

[36]   E. Skoglund, N. Carlsson and A. Sandberg, “High-Performance Chromatographic Separation of Inositol Phosphate Isomers on Strong Anion Exchange Columns,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 46, 1998, pp. 1877-1882. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf9709257

[37]   J. Lehrfeld, “HPLC Separation and Quantification of Phytic Acid and Some Inositol Phosphates in Foods: Problems and Solutions,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 42, No. 12, 1994, pp. 2726-2731.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf00048a015

 
 
Top