NS  Vol.5 No.12 , December 2013
Estimation of annual harvested runoff at Sulaymaniyah Governorate, Kurdistan region of Iraq
Abstract: Kurdistan Region (KR) of Iraq has suffered from the drought period during the seasons 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 that affected the human and economic activities of the region. Macro rainwater harvesting (Macro RWH) is one of the techniques that can ensure water availability for a region having limited water resources. This technique is based on Soil Conservation ServiceCurve Number (SCS-CN) method and the Watershed Modeling System (WMS) was used to estimate the runoff. Rainfall records of Sulaymaniyah area for the period 2002-2012 were studied and an average season was selected (2010-2011). The results of the application of the WMS model showed that about 10.76 million cubic meters could be harvested. The results also showed that the quantity of the harvested runoff was highly affected by rainfall depth, curve number values, antecedent moisture conditions (AMC) and the area of the basins.
Cite this paper: Zakaria, S. , Mustafa, Y. , Mohammed, D. , Ali, S. , Al-Ansari, N. and Knutsson, S. (2013) Estimation of annual harvested runoff at Sulaymaniyah Governorate, Kurdistan region of Iraq. Natural Science, 5, 1272-1283. doi: 10.4236/ns.2013.512155.

[1]   Al-Ansari, N.A., (1998) Water resources in the Arab countries: Problems and possible solutions. UNESCO International Conference (Water: A loomingcrisis), Paris, 367376.

[2]   Al-Ansari, N.A. (2013) Management of water resources in Iraq: Perspectives and prognoses. Journal of Engineering, 5, 667-684.

[3]   Al-Ansari, N.A. and Knutsson, S. (2011) Toward prudent management of water resources in Iraq. Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering Research, 1, 53-67.

[4]   UNDP (United Nations Development Programmer Iraq) (2011) Drought impact assessment, recovery and mitigation framework and regional project design in Kurdistan region.

[5]   United Nations (2010) Water resources management white paper. United Nations assistance mission for Iraq, United Nations Country Team in Iraq, 20.

[6]   Hamdy, A. (2013) Water crisis and food security in the Arab world: The future challenges.

[7]   Prinz, D. and Singh, A.K. (2000) Water resources in arid regions and their sustainable management. Special Issue on Research, Annals of Arid Zone, 39, 1-8.

[8]   Oweis, T. and Hachum, A. (2006) Water harvesting and supplemental irrigation for improved water productivity of dry farming systems in West Asia and North Africa. Journal of Agricultural Water Management, 80, 57-73.

[9]   Prinz, D. (1996) Water harvesting: Past and future. In: Pereira, L.S., Ed., Sustainability of Irrigated Agriculture. Proceedings, NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Vimeiro, 21-26.03, Balkema, Rotterdam, 135-144.

[10]   Al-Ansari, N.A., Alroubai, A. and Knutsson (2012) Bathymetry and sediment survey for two old water harvesting schemes, Jordan. Journal of Earth Science and Geotechnical Engineering, 2, 13-23.

[11]   Al-Ansari, N.A., Alroubai, A. and Knutsson, S. (2012) Sedimentation rates in two water harvesting schemes at the jordanian badia. Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 3, 82-86.

[12]   Al-Ansari, N.A., Al-Hanbaly, M. and Knutsson, S. (2013) Hydrology of the most ancient water harvesting schemes. Journal of Earth Science and Geotechnical Engineering, 3, 15-25.

[13]   Prinz, D. and Singh, A.K. (2000) Technological potential for improvements of water harvesting study for the world commission on dams, Cape Town, South Africa (Report: Dams and Development).

[14]   Siegert, K. (1994) Introduction to water harvesting: Some basic principles for planning, design and monitoring. Water Harvesting for Improved Agricultural Production. Proceedings of the FAO Expert Consultation, FAO, Cairo, Rome.

[15]   Prinz, D. (1996) Water harvesting—History, techniques trends. Z. f. Bewaesserungswirtschaft31, 1, 64-105.

[16]   Critchley, W. and Siegert, C. (1991) Water Harvesting Manual. FAO Paper AGL/MISC/17/91, FAO, Rome.

[17]   Boers, T.M. and Ben-Asher, J. (1982) A review of rainwater harvesting. Agriculture Water Managem, 5, 145-158.

[18]   Zakaria, S., Al-Ansari, N.A., Knutsson, S. and Ezz-Aldeen, M., (2012) Rainwater harvesting and supplemental irrigation at northern sinjar mountain, Iraq. Journal of Purity, Utility Reaction and Environment, 1, 121-141.

[19]   Zakaria, S., Al-Ansari, N.A., Knutsson, S. and Ezz-Aldeen, M. (2012) Rainwater harvesting at eastern Sinjar mountain, Iraq. Journal of Geoscience Research, 3, 100-108.

[20]   Zakaria, S., Al-Ansari, N.A. and Knutsson, S. (2013) Rainwater harvesting using recorded and hypothetical rainfall data scenarios. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 3, 21-42.

[21]   Zakaria, S., Al-Ansari, N.A. and Knutsson, S. (2013) Wheat yield scenarios for rainwater harvesting at Northern Sinjar Mountain, Iraq. Journal of Natural Science, 5, 1057-1068.

[22]   Al-Ansari, N.A., Ezz-Aldeen, M., Knutsson, S. and Zakaria, S. (2013) Water harvesting and reservoir optimization in selected areas of south Sinjar Mountain, Iraq, Accepted for publication in ASCE. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering.

[23]   Miriti, J.M., Esilaba, A.O., Bationo, A., Cheruiyot, H.K. Kathuku, A.N. and Wakaba, P. (2011) Water harvesting and integrated nutrient management options for maizecowpea production in semi-arid Eastern Kenya. Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Part 2, 473-480.

[24]   Bakari, A.H., Mahoo, H.F. and Hatibu, N. (1998) Perormance of maize under gully flow supplementary irrigation. In: Makungu, P.J., Mahoo, H.F., Silayo, V.C.K. and Mdemu, M., Eds., A Proceedings of Tanzania Society of Agricultural Engineers, 8, 20-42.

[25]   Gowing, J.W., Mahoo, H.F., Mzirai, O.B. and Hatibu, N. (1999) Review of water harvesting techniques and evidence for their use in semi-arid Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Science, 2, 171-180.

[26]   Mzirai, O. and Tumbo, S. (2010) Macro-catchment rainwater harvesting systems: Challenges and opportunities to access runoff. Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, JAPS, 7, 789-800.

[27]   Bruins, H.J., Evenari, M. and Nessler, U. (1986) Rainwater-harvesting agriculture for food production in arid zones the challenge of the African famine. Applied Geography, 6, 13-32.

[28]   Fox, P. and Rockstrom, J. (2003) Supplemental irrigation for dry-spell mitigation of rainfed agriculture in the Sahel. Agricultural Water Management, 61, 29-50.

[29]   Hatibu, N., Young, M.D.B., Gowing, J.W., Mahoo, H.F. and Mzirai, O.B. (2003) Developing improved dryland cropping systems for maize in semi-arid Tanzania. Part 1: Experimental evidence for the benefits of rainwater harvesting. Experimental Agriculture, 39, 279-292.

[30]   Zakaria, S., Nadhir Al-Ansari, Yaseen, T., Mustafa, Payman Suhbat Ahmad, Bahra, D.G. and Sven, K. (2013) Rainwater harvesting at Koysinjaq (Koya), Kurdistan region, Iraq. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering.

[31]   Zakaria, S., Al-Ansari, N.A., Yaseen, T., Mustafa, M.D.J., Alshibli and Knutsson, S. (2013) Macro rain water harvesting network to estimate annual runoff at Koysinjaq (Koya) district, Kurdistan region of Iraq. Journal of Engineering.

[32]   Ponce, V.M. and Hawkins, R.H. (1996) Runoff curve number: Has it reached maturity? ASCE Journal Hydrologic Engineering, 1, 11-19.

[33]   Saber, M., Hamaguchi, T., Kojiri, T. and Tanaka, K. (2009) Spatiotemporal runoff features of hydrological modeling in arabian wadi basins through comparative studies. Annals of Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, Kyoto.

[34]   Al-Zubi, J., Al-Zubi, Y. and Abubaker, S. (2010) Hydrology and water harvesting techniques of wadimuheiwir catchment area-the case study of Jordan. Journal of Applied Science, 10, 298-304.

[35]   ?imák, P., (2009) Hydrological study of the ashibaram dam, PhD. Dissertation Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.

[36]   Williams, J.R. (1995) The EPIC model, Chapter 25. In Singh, V.P., Ed., Computer Models of Watershed Hydrology, Water Resources Publications, Highlands Ranch, CO.

[37]   Neitsch, S.L., Arnold, J.G., Kiniry, J.R. and Williams, J.R. (2005) Soil and water assessments tool theoretical documentation, 102. /1292/swat2005theory.pdf

[38]   ASCE/EWRI Curve Number Hydrology Task Committee (2009) Curve number hydrology: State of the practice. In: Hawkins, R.H., Ward, T.J., Donald, E.W. and VanMullem, J.A., Eds., American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Virginia, 116.

[39]   Mohammed H., (2013) Water harvesting in Erbil Governorate, Kurdistan region, Iraq Detection of suitable sites using Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing.”, Master thesis, Lund University, Sweden.

[40]   Al-Ansari, N.A., Zakaria, S., Mustafa, Y.T., Ahmad, P., Ghafour, B. and Knutsson, S. (2013) Development of water resources in Koya City, Iraq. 1st International Symposium on Urban Development of Koya, 16-17 December 2013, Koya University.

[41]   Chow VenTe, Maidment, David, R., Mays and Larry, W. (1988) Applied Hydrology. McGraw Hill, 277.

[42]   Buringh, P. (1960) Soils and soil conditions of Iraq. Ministry of Agriculture, Agricultural Research and Projects, Baghdad.