IJOC  Vol.3 No.4 , December 2013
Solvent-Free Synthesis of 5-Alkenyl-2,2-butylidene-1, 3-dioxane-4,6-diones under Ultrasonic Irradiation with o-Phthalimide-N-Sulfonic Acid as Catalyst
Abstract: 5-Alkenyl-2,2-butylidene-1,3-dioxane-4,6-diones were synthesized by the Knoevenagel condensation reaction of aromatic aldehydes with 2,2-butylidene-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione using o-phthalimide-N-sulfonic acid as catalyst, without solvent under ultrasonic irradiation. The present method has some notable advantages such as mild reaction conditions, short reaction times, less catalyst dosage and high yields with the green aspects by avoiding toxic catalysts and solvents. Further, the catalyst can be reused for five times without any noticeable decrease in the catalytic activity.    
Cite this paper: C. Lin, Z. Xu and W. Liao, "Solvent-Free Synthesis of 5-Alkenyl-2,2-butylidene-1, 3-dioxane-4,6-diones under Ultrasonic Irradiation with o-Phthalimide-N-Sulfonic Acid as Catalyst," International Journal of Organic Chemistry, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2013, pp. 275-279. doi: 10.4236/ijoc.2013.34039.

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