OJRad  Vol.3 No.4 , December 2013
The Role of Ultrasound in Intestinal Inflammatory Processes in Children and Adolescents
ABSTRACT

Purpose: To disseminate the current knowledge about the intestinal inflammatory processes in children and its approach by ultrasound (US) and provide necessary information to pediatricians for early diagnosis through this complementary method. Source of Data: The sources of data were selected by Medline, the international manuscripts, international medical journals more relevant in the last 20 years about Gray Scale and Color Doppler Ultrasound in the evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease in children and adolescents. Conclusions: Several authors have suggested that the ultrasound should be the first study in the diagnostic investigation process in suspected inflammatory bowel disease to determine the most affected region and monitor the therapy response. While colonoscopy still remains as the reference diagnostic method, the literature suggests that US can be an extremely useful tool in the context of the suspected diagnosis of a wide variety of intestinal inflammatory processes in children.


Cite this paper
M. Epifanio, V. Sgnaolin and M. Baldisserotto, "The Role of Ultrasound in Intestinal Inflammatory Processes in Children and Adolescents," Open Journal of Radiology, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2013, pp. 215-221. doi: 10.4236/ojrad.2013.34035.
References
[1]   M. Guindi and R. H. Riddell, “Indeterminate Colitis,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, Vol. 57, No. 12, 2004, pp. 1233-1244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jcp.2003.015214

[2]   G. T. Martland and N. A. Shepherd, “Indeterminate Colitis: Definition, Diagnosis, Implications and a Plea for Nosological Sanity,” Histopathology, Vol. 50, No. 1, 2007, pp. 83-96.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2559.2006.02545.x

[3]   D. Knafelz, B. Papadatou, A. Barabino, R. B. Canani, S. Cucchiara, P. Lionetti, S. Martelossi and L. Zancan, “Epidemiology of Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Italy: Results from the National Register,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, Vol. 39, Suppl. 1, 2004, p. S282.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005176-200406001-00718

[4]   IBD Working Group of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, “Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Children and Adolescents: Recommendations for Diagnosis—The Porto Criteria,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, Vol. 41, 2005, pp. 1-7.

[5]   E. Hait, A. Bousvaros and R. Grand, “Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: What Children Can Teach Adults,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Vol. 11, No. 9, 2005, pp. 519-527.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.MIB.0000166932.66853.fd

[6]   A. Bousvaros, D. A. Antonioli, R. B. Colletti, M. C. Dubinsky, J. N. Glickman, B. D. Gold BD, et al., “North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition; Colitis Foundation of America, “Differentiating Ulcerative Colitis from Crohn Disease in Children and Young Adults: Report of a Working Group of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and the Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Vol. 44, 2007, pp. 653674.

[7]   D. Barbieri, “Doencas Inflamatórias Intestinais,” Jornal de Pediatria, Vol. 76, Suppl. 1, 2000, pp. 173-180.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2223/JPED.151

[8]   J. S. Hyams and J. F. Markowitz, “Can We Alter the Natural History of Crohn Disease in Children?” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Vol. 40, No. 3, 2005, pp. 262-272.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.MPG.0000154660.62359.FE

[9]   A. Bousvaros, D. Zurakowski, S. J. Fishman, K. Keough, T. Law, C. Sun, et al., “Serum Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor in Pediatric Crohn’s Disease. Implications for Wound Healing,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, Vol. 42, No. 2, 1997, pp. 378-386.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1018882322566

[10]   M. Daperno, G. D’Haens, G. Van Assche, P. Bulois, V. Maunoury, R. Sostegni, et al., “Development and Validation of a New, Simplified Endoscopic Activity Score for Crohn’s Disease: The SES-CD,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, Vol. 60, No. 4, 2004, pp. 505-512.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-5107(04)01878-4

[11]   J. Y. Mary, R. Modigliani, “Development and Validation of an Endoscopic Index of the Severity for Crohn’s Disease: A Prospective Multicentre Study. Groupe d’Etudes Thérapeutiques des Affections Inflammatoires du Tube Digestif (GETAID),” Gut, Vol. 30, No. 7, 1989, pp. 983-989.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gut.30.7.983

[12]   D. P. Hurlstone, D. S. Sanders and A. J. Lobo, “Prospective Evaluation of High-Frequency Mini-Probe Ultrasound Colonoscopic Imaging in Ulcerative Colitis: A Valid Tool for Predicting Clinical Severity,” European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Vol. 17, No. 12, 2005, pp. 1325-1331.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00042737-200512000-00010

[13]   E. G. Seidman, “Role of Endoscopy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America, Vol. 11, No. 4, 2001, pp. 641-657.

[14]   R. B. Canani, L. T. Horatio, G. Terrin, M. T. Romano, E. Miele, A. Staiano, et al., “Combined Use of Noninvasive Tests Is Useful in the Initial Diagnostic Approach to a Child with Suspected Inflammatory Bowel Disease,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Vol. 42, No. 1, 2006, pp. 9-15.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.mpg.0000187818.76954.9a

[15]   L. Ruess, A. R. Blask, D. I. Bulas, P. Mohan, A. Bader, J. S. Latimer, et al., “Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Children and Young Adults: Correlation of Sonographic and Clinical Parameters during Treatment,” American Journal of Roentgenology, Vol. 175, No. 1, 2000, pp. 79-84.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/ajr.175.1.1750079

[16]   R. G. Nielsen, C. Bindslev-Jensen, M. Kruse-Andersen and S. Husby, “Severe Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Cow Milk Hypersensitivity in Infants and Children: Disease Association and Evaluation of a New Challenge Procedure,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Vol. 39, No. 4, 2004, pp. 383-391.

[17]   O. H. Gilja, J. G. Hatlebakk, S. Odegaard, A. Berstad, I. Viola, C. Giertsen, et al., “Advanced Imaging and Visualization in Gastrointestinal Disorders,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol. 13, No. 9, 2007, pp. 1408-1421.

[18]   Y. Patenaude, C. Bernard, R. Schreiber and A. B. Sinsky, “Cow’s-Milk-Induced Allergic Colitis in an Exclusively Breast-Fed Infant: Diagnosed with Ultrasound,” Pediatric Radiology, Vol. 30, No. 6, 2000, pp. 379-382.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002470050765

[19]   D. Strobel, R. S. Goertz and T. Bernatik, “Diagnostics in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Ultrasound,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol. 17, No. 27, 2011, pp. 31923197.

[20]   M. J. Siegel, C. Carel and S. Surratt, “Ultrasonography of Acute Abdominal Pain in Children,” JAMA, Vol. 266, No. 14, 1991, pp. 1987-1989.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1991.03470140099032

[21]   P. Skaane, P. F. Amland, T. Nordshus and K. Solheim, “Ultrasonography in Patients with Suspected Acute Appendicitis: A Prospective Study,” British Journal of Radiology, Vol. 63, No. 754, 1990, pp. 787-793.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/0007-1285-63-754-787

[22]   G. Arslan, S. Odegaard, S. Elsayed, E. Florvaag and A. Berstad, “Food Allergy and Intolerance: Response to Intestinal Provocation Monitored by Endosonography,” European Journal of Ultrasound, Vol. 15, No. 1-2, 2002, pp. 29-36.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0929-8266(02)00004-6

[23]   J. H. Miller and C. R. Kemberling, “Ultrasound Scanning of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Children: Subject Review,” Radiology, Vol., No., 1984, pp. 671-677.

[24]   R. Faingold, A. Daneman, G. Tomlinson, P. S. Babyn, D. E. Manson, A. Mohanta, et al., “Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Assessment of Bowel Viability with Color Doppler US,” Radiology, Vol. 235, No. 2, 2005, pp. 587-594.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2352031718

[25]   J. F. Eidt, T. Harward, J. M. Cook, M. B. Kahn and R. Troillett, “Current Status of Duplex Doppler Ultrasound in the Examination of the Abdominal Vasculature,” The American Journal of Surgery, Vol. 160, No. 6, 1990, pp. 604-609.

[26]   F. VanBel, P. H. VanZwieten, G. L. Guit and J. Schipper, “Superior Mesenteric Artery Blood Flow Velocity and Estimated Volume Flow: Duplex Doppler US Study of Preterm and Term Neonates,” Radiology, Vol. 174, No. 1, 1990, pp. 165-169.

[27]   O. H. Gilja, J. G. Hatlebakk, S. Odegaard, A. Berstad, I. Viola, C. Giertsen, et al., “Advanced Imaging and Visualization in Gastrointestinal Disorders,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol. 13, No. 9, 2007, pp. 1408-1421.

[28]   B. Limberg, “Diagnosis of Acute Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease by Colonic Sonography,” Journal of Clinical Ultrasound, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1989, pp. 25-31.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcu.1870170106

[29]   S. P. Quillin and M. J. Siegel, “Gastrointestinal Inflammation in Children: Color Doppler Ultrasonography,” Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, Vol. 13, No. 10, 1994, pp. 751-756.

[30]   . P. Quillin and M. J. Siegel, “Color Doppler US of Children with Acute Lower Abdominal Pain,” Radiographics, Vol. 13, No. 6, 1993, pp. 1281-1293.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiographics.13.6.8290724

[31]   D. P. Hurlstone, D. S. Sanders, A. J. Lobo, M. E. McAlindon and S. S. Cross, “Prospective Evaluation of High-Frequency Mini-Probe Ultrasound Colonoscopic Imaging in Ulcerative Colitis: A Valid Tool for Predicting Clinical Severity,” European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Vol. 17, No. 12, 2005, pp. 13251331.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00042737-200512000-00010

[32]   C. Faure, N. Belarbi, J. F. Mougenot, M. Besnard, J. P. Hugot, J. P. Cézard, et al., “Ultrasonographic Assessment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Children: Comparison with Ileo-Colonoscopy,” Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 130, No. 1, 1997, pp. 147-151.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3476(97)70325-1

[33]   D. Gaitini, A. J. Kreitenberg, D. Fischer, I. Maza and Y. Chowers, “Color-Coded Duplex Sonography Compared to Multidetector Computed Tomography for the Diagnosis of Crohn Disease Relapse and Complications,” Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, Vol. 30, No. 12, 2011, pp. 1691-1699.

[34]   M. P. Hiorns, “Imaging of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. How?” Pediatric Radiology, Vol. 38, No. 3, 2008, pp. S512-S517.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-008-0835-8

[35]   M. J. Siegel, J. A. Friedland and C. F. Hildebolt, “Bowel Wall Thickening in Children: Differentiation with US,” Radiology, Vol. 203, No. 3, 1997, pp. 631-635.

[36]   S. A. Teefey, M. C. Roarke, J. A. Brink, W. D. Middleton, D. M. Balfe, E. P. Thyssen, et al., “Bowel Wall Thickening: Differentiation of Inflammation from Ischemia with Color Doppler and Duplex US,” Radiology, Vol. 198, No. 2, 1996, pp. 547-551.

[37]   H. P. Haber, A. Busch, R. Ziebach and M. Stern, “Bowel Wall Thickness Measured by Ultrasound as a Marker of Crohn’s Disease Activity in Children,” Lancet, Vol. 355, No. 9211, 2000, pp. 1239-1240.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02092-4

[38]   C. Baud, M. Saguintaah, C. Veyrac, A. Couture, J. L. Ferran, G. Barnéon, et al., “Sonographic Diagnosis of Colitis in Children,” European Radiology, Vol. 14, No. 11, 2004, pp. 2105-2119.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-004-2358-5

[39]   G. Maconi, E. Radice, S. Greco and G. Bianchi Porro, “Bowel Ultrasound in Crohn’s Disease,” Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, pp. 93-112.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpg.2005.09.001

[40]   J. Spalinger, H. Patriquin, M. Miron, G. Marx, D. Herzog, J. Dubois, M. Dubinsky and E. G. Seidman, “Doppler US in Patients with Crohn Disease: Vessel Density in the Diseased Bowel Reflects Disease Activity,” Radiology, Vol. 217, No. 3, 2000, pp. 787-791.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiology.217.3.r00dc19787

[41]   B. Vucelic, “Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Controversies in the Use of Diagnostic Procedures,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, Vol. 27, No. 3, 2009, pp. 269-277.

[42]   K. Horsthuis, S. Bipat, R. J. Bennink and J. Stoker, “Inflammatory Bowel Disease Diagnosed with US, MR, Scintigraphy, and CT: Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies,” Radiology, Vol. 247, No. 1, 2008, pp. 64-79.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2471070611

[43]   A. G. Schreyer, C. Menzel, C. Friedrich, F. Poschenrieder, L. Egger, C. Dornia, et al., “Comparison of High-Resolution Ultrasound and MRenterography in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol. 17, No. 8, 2011, pp. 1018-1025.

[44]   M. Alison, A. Kheniche, R. Azoulay, S. Roche, G. Sebag and N. Belarbi, “Ultrasonography of Crohn Disease in Children,” Pediatric Radiology, Vol. 37, No.1 1, 2007, pp. 1071-1082.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-007-0559-1

 
 
Top