F. Fazekas, K. Niederkorn, F. Ebner and E. Díez-Tejedor, “Relevance of Neuroimaging in the Evaluation of Cerebral Ischemia,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, Vol. 27, Suppl. 1, 2009, pp. 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000200436
 S. R. Satti, C. A. Cerniglia and R. A. Koenigsberg, “Cervical Vertebral Artery Variations: An Anatomic Study,” AJNR, Vol. 28, No. 5, 2007, pp. 976-980.
 T. H. Newton and R. L. Mani, “The Vertebral Artery,” In: T. H. Newton and D. G. Potts, Eds., Radiology of the Skull and Brain, Mosby, St. Louis, 1974, pp. 1659-1672.
 K. Yamaki, T. Saga, T. Hirata, M. Sakaino, M. Nohno, S. Kobayashi, et al., “Anatomical Study of the Vertebral Japanese Adults,” Anatomical Science International, Vol. 81, No. 2, 2006, pp. 100-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1447-073X.2006.00133.x
 S. R. Nayak, M. M. Pai, L. V. Prabhu, S. D’Costa and P. Shetty, “Anatomical Organization of Aortic Arch Variations in the India: Embryological Basis and Review,” Jornal Vascular Brasileiro, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2006, pp. 95100.
 K. I. Natsis, I. A. Tsitouridis, M. V. Didagelos, A. A. Fillipidis , K. G. Vlasis and P. D. Tsikaras, “Anatomical Variations in the Branches of the Human Aortic Arch in 633 Angiographies: Clinical Significance and Literature Review,” Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy, Vol. 31, No. 5, pp. 2009, 319-323.
 M. Müller, B. L. Schmitz, S. Pauls, M. Schick, S. Rohrer, T. Kapapa, et al., “Variations of the Aortic Arch—A Study on the Most Common Branching Patterns,” Acta Radiologica, Vol. 52, No. 7, 2011, pp. 738-774. http://dx.doi.org/10.1258/ar.2011.110013
 A. J. Lemke, G. Benndorf, T. Liebig and R. Felix, “Anomalous Origin of the Right Vertebral Artery: Review of the Literature and Case Report of the Right Vertebral Artery Origin Distal to the Left Subclavian Artery,” American Journal of Neuroradiology, Vol. 20, No. 7, 1999, pp. 1318-1321.
 E. Seidel, B. M. Eicke, B. Tettenborn and F. Krummenauer, “Reference Values for Vertebral Artery Flow Volume by Duplex Sonography in Young and Elderly Adults,” Stroke, Vol. 30, No. 12, 1999, pp. 2692-2696. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.30.12.2692
 K. Saito, K. Kimura, K. Nagatsuka, K. Nagano, K. Minematsu, S. Ueno, et al., “Vertebral Artery Occlusion in Duplex Color-Coded Ultrasonography,” Stroke, Vol. 35, No. 5, 2004, pp. 1068-1072. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.0000125857.63427.59
 B. Oder, W. Oder, W. Lang, E. Marschnigg and L. Deecke, “Hypoplasia, Stenosis and Other Alterations of the Vertebral Artery: DOES Impaired Blood Rheology Manifest a Hidden Disease?” Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, Vol. 97, No. 6, 1998, pp. 398-403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0404.1998.tb05973.x
 Y. M. Chuang, Y. C. Huang, H. H. Hu and C. Y. Yang, “Toward a Further Elucidation: Role of Vertebral Artery Hypoplasia in Acute Ischemic Stroke,” European Neurology, Vol. 55, No. 4, 2006, pp. 193-197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000093868
 A. Songur, Y. Gonul, O. A. Ozen, H. Kucuker, I. Uzun, O. Bas, et al., “Variations in the Intracranial Vertebrobasilar System,” Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2008, pp. 257-264. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00276-008-0309-6
 I. C. Tsai, W. S. Tzeng, T. Lee, S. L. Jan , Y. C. Fu , M. C. Chen, et al., “Vertebral and Carotid Artery Anomalies in Patients with Aberrant Right Subclavian Arteries,” Pediatric Radiology, Vol. 37, No. 10, 2007, pp. 1007-1012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-007-0574-2
 J. Park, J. Kim and J. Roh, “Hypoplastic Vertebral Artery: Frequency and Associations with Ischaemic Stroke Territory,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, Vol. 78, No. 9, 2007, pp. 954-958. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2006.105767
 Y. M. Chuang, C. C. Chen and C. P. Lin, “Vertebral Artery Hypoplasia May Contribute to Abnormal Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials,” Acta Neurologica Taiwanica, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2009, pp. 113-117.
 L. Morris, “Non-Union of the Vertebral Arteries: Case Report,” British Journal of Radiology, Vol. 35, 1962, pp. 496-498.http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/0007-1285-35-415-496
 K. Morimoto, M. Nagahata, S. Ono, H. Miura, F. Tsushima, H. Seino, et al., “Incidence of Unilateral Distal Vertebral Artery Aplasia: Evaluation by Combining Basiparallel Anatomic Scanning—Magnetic Resonance Imaging (BPAS-MRI) and Magnetic Resonance Angiography,” Japanese Journal of Radiology, Vol. 27, No. 3, 2009, pp. 151-155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11604-008-0313-0
 M. Nagahata, Y. Abe, S. Ono, T. Hosoya and S. Uno, “Surface Appearance of the Vertebrobasilar Artery Revealed on Basiparallel Anatomic Scanning (BPAS)—MR Imaging. Its Role for Brain MR Examination,” AJNR, Vol. 26, 2005, pp. 2508-2513.
 K. S. Caldemeyer, J. B. Carrico and V. P. Mathews, “The Radiology and Embryology of Anomalous Arteries of the Head and Neck,” AJR, Vol. 170, No. 1, 1998, pp. 197203. Dear Author,
 J. J. Van Overbeeke, B. Hillen and C. A. Tulleken, “A Comparative Study of the Circle of Willis in Fetal and Adult Life. The Configuration of the Posterior Bifurcation of the Posterior Communicating Artery,” Journal of Anatomy, Vol. 176, 1991, pp. 45-54.
 R. R. Edelman, H. P. Mattle, G. V. O’Reilly, K. U. Wentz, C. Liu and B Zhao, “Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Flow Dynamics in the Circle of Willis,” Stroke, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1990, pp. 56-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.21.1.56
 P. Scheel, C. Ruge, U. R. Petruch and M. Schoning, “Color Duplex Measurement of Cerebral Blood Flow Volume in Healthy Adults,” Stroke, Vol. 31, No. 1, 2000, pp. 147150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.31.1.147
 M. Schoning and B. Hartig,”The Development of Hemodynamics in the Extracranial Carotid and Vertebral Arteries,” Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Vol. 24, No. 5, 1998, pp. 655-662. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0301-5629(98)00029-5
 S. Chaturvedi, T. G. Lukovits, W. Chen and P. B. Gorelick, “ Ischemia in the Territory of a Hypoplastic Vertebrobasilar System,” Neurology, Vol. 52, No. 5, 1999, pp. 980-983.
 J. H. Park, J. M. Kim and J. K. Roh, “Hypoplastic Vertebral Artery: Frequency and Associations with Ischaemic Stroke Territory,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, Vol. 78, No. 9, 2007, pp. 954-958. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2006.105767
 F. Perren, D. Poglia, T. Landis and R. Sztajzel, “Vertebral Artery Hypoplasia: A Predisposing Factor for Posterior Circulation Stroke?” Neurology, Vol. 68, No. 1, 2007, pp. 65-67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000250258.76706.98
 S. Giannopoulos, S. Markoula, M. Kosmidou, S. H. Pelidou and A. P. Kyritsis, “Lateral Medullary Ischaemic Events in Young Adults with Hypoplastic Vertebral Artery,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, Vol. 78, No. 9, 2007, pp. 987-989. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2006.106419
 A. Lovrencic-Huzjan, V. Demarin, T. Rundek and V. Vukovic, “Role of Vertebral Artery Hypoplasia in Migraine,” Cephalalgia, Vol. 18, No. 10, 1998, pp. 684-686. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1468-2982.1998.1810684.x
 Y. M. Chuang, Y. C. Hwang, C. P. Lin and C. Y. Liu, “Toward a Further Elucidation: Role of Vertebral Artery Hypoplasia in Migraine with Aura,” European Neurology, Vol. 59, No. 3-4, 2006, pp. 148-151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000111878
 E. B. Ringelstein, H. Zeumer and D. Angelou, “The Pathogenesis of Strokes from Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion. Diagnostic and Therapeutical Implications,” Stroke, Vol. 14, No. 6, 1983, pp. 867-875. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.14.6.867
 J. P. Kistler, A. H. Ropper and R. C. Heros, “Therapy of Ischemic Cerebral Vascular Disease Due to Atherothrombosis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 311, No. 2, 1984, pp. 100-105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198407123110206
 F. B. Meyer, D. G. Piepgras, T. M. Sundt Jr. and T. Yanagihara, “Emergency Embolectomy for Acute Occlusion of the Middle Cerebral Artery,” Journal of Neurosurgery, Vol. 62, No. 5, 1985, pp. 639-647. http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/jns.1985.62.5.0639