B. But, C. W. Chan, F. Chan, K. W. Chan, A. W. Cheng, P. Cheung, et al., “Consensus Statement on Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Hong Kong,” Hong Kong Medical Journal, Vol. 9, No. 6, 2003, pp. 446-453.
 V. Sethi and U. Kapil, “Iodine Deficiency and Development of the Brain,” Indian Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 71, No. 4, 2004, pp. 325-329.
 D. V. Becker, L. E. Braverman, F. Delange, J. T. Dunn, J. A. Franklyn, J. G. Hollowell, et al., “Iodine Supplementation for Pregnancy and Lactation—United States and Canada: Recommendations of the American Thyroid Association: The Public Health Committee of the American Thyroid Association,” Thyroid, Vol. 16, No. 10, 2006, pp. 949-951. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2006.16.949
 M. D. H. Ibrahim, J. K. H. Sinn and W. McGuire, “Iodine Supplementation for the Prevention of Mortality and Adverse Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Preterm Infants,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Vol. 2, 2006, pp. 1-18.
 J. P. Schroder-van der Elst, D. Van der Heide, G. M. de Escobar and M. J. Obregon, “Iodothyronine Deiodinase Activities in Fetal Rat Tissues at Several Levels of Iodine Deficiency: A Role for the Skin in 3,5,3-Triiodothyronine Economy?” Endocrinology, Vol. 139, No. 5, 1998, pp. 2229-2234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.139.5.2229
 F. Delange, “The Role of Iodine in Brain Development,” Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, Vol. 59, No. 1, 2000, pp. 75-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665100000094
 Delange F, “Iodine Deficiency as a Cause of Brain Damage,” Postgraduate Medical Journal, Vol. 77, No. 906, 2001, pp. 217-220.
 F. Delange, “Epidemiology and Impact of Iodine Deficiency in Pediatrics,” Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 18, Suppl. 1, 2005, pp. 1245-1251.
 M. P. J. Vanderpump, J. H. Lazarus, P. P. Smith, P. Laurberg, R. L. Holder, K. Boelaert, et al., “Iodine Status of UK Schoolgirls: A Cross-Sectional Survey,” Lancet, Vol. 377, No. 9782, 2011, pp. 2007-2012.
 R. Lavado-Autric, E. Auso, J. V. Garcia-Velasco, M. del Carmen Arufe, F. E. del Rey, P. Berbel, et al., “Early Maternal Hypothyroxinemia Alters Histogenesis and Cerebral Cortex Cytoarchitecture of the Progeny,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol. 111, No. 7, 2003, pp. 10731082.
 N. Van Wijk, E. Rijntjes and B. J. M. van de Heijning, “Perinatal and Chronic Hypothyroidism Impair Behavioural Development in Male and Female Rats,” Experimental Physiology, Vol. 93, No. 11, 2008, pp. 1199-1209.
 F. R. S. Lima, A. Gervais, C. Colin, M. Izembart, V. M. Neto and M. Mallat, “Regulation of Microglial Development: A Novel Role for Thyroid Hormone,” Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 21, No. 11, 2001, pp. 2028-2038.
 A. R. Mansourian, “A Review on the Metabolic Disorders of Iodine Deficiency,” Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, Vol. 14, No. 7, 2011, pp. 412-424.
 N. Bleichrodt and M. P. Born, “Meta-Analysis of Research on Iodine and Its Relationship to Cognitive Development,” In: J. B. Stanbury, Ed., The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency, Cognizant Communication Corporation, New York, 1994, pp. 195-200.
 D. Glinoer, “The Importance of Iodine Nutrition during Pregnancy,” Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 10, No. 12A, 2007, pp. 1542-1546.
 C. Mian, P. Vitaliano, D. Pozza, S. Barollo, M. Pitton, G. Callegari, et al., “Iodine Status in Pregnancy: Role of Dietary Habits and Geographical Origin,” Clinical Endocrinology, Vol. 70, No. 5, 2009, pp. 776-780.
 M. B. Zimmermann, “Iodine Deficiency in Pregnancy and the Effects of Maternal Iodine Supplementation on the Offspring: A Review”, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 89, No. 2, 2009, pp. 668S-672S.
 C. A. Barnett, T. J. Visser, F. Williams, H. V. Toor, S. Duran, M. J. Presas, et al., “Inadequate Iodine Intake of 40% of Pregnant Women from a Region in Scotland”, Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, Vol. 25, 2002, p. 90.
 D. Glinoer, “The Regulation of Thyroid Function during Normal pregnancy: Importance of the Iodine Nutrition Status,” Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2004, pp. 133-152.
 F. R. Perez-Lopez, “Iodine and Thyroid Hormones during Pregnancy and Postpartum,” Gynecological Endocrinology, Vol. 23, No. 7, 2007, pp. 414-428.
 N. Kochupillai and M. Mehta, “Iodine Deficiency Disorders and Their Prevention in India,” Reviews of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disorders, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2008, pp. 237-244.
 A. Melse-Boonstra, N. Jaiswal, “Iodine Deficiency in Pregnancy, Infancy and Childhood and its Consequences for Brain Development,” Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2010, pp. 29-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beem.2009.09.002
 J. H. Lazarus, “Evaluating Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Women and Young Infants-Complex Physiology with a Risk of Misinterpretation—Comments,” Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 10, No. 12A, 2007, pp. 1553-1553.
 M. Haldimann, A. Alt, A. Blanc and K. Blondeau, “Iodine Content of Food Groups”, Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 18, No. 6, 2005, pp. 461-471.
 G. M. De Escobar, M. J. Obregon and F. E. del Rey, “Iodine Deficiency and Brain Development in the First Half of Pregnancy,” Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 10, No. 12A, 2007, pp. 1554-1570.
 D. Benton, “The Influence of Dietary Status on the Cognitive Performance of Children,” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, Vol. 54, No. 4, 2010, pp. 457-470.
 B. J. Potter, M. T. Mano, G. B. Belling, D. M. Martin, B. G. Craqq, J. Chavadej, et al., “Restoration of Brain Growth in Fetal Sheep after Iodized Oil Administration to IodineDeficient Ewes”, Journal of Neurological Sciences, Vol. 66, 1984, pp. 15-26.
 A. E. Voudouri, E. C. Stella, J. G. Menegatos, G. P. Zervas, F. Nicol and J. R. Arthur, “Selenoenzyme Activities in Selenium and Iodine-Deficient Sheep,” Biological Trace Element Research, Vol. 94, No. 3, 2003, pp. 213224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1385/BTER:94:3:213
 A. Farahvar, N. H. Darwish, S. Sladek and E. Meisami, “Marked Recovery of Functional Metabolic Activity and Laminar Volumes in the Rat Hippocampus and Dentate Gyrus Following Postnatal Hypothyroid Growth Retardation: A Quantitative Cytochrome Oxidase Study,” Experimental Neurology, Vol. 204, No. 2, 2007, pp. 556-568.
 B. Giray, J. Riondel, J. Arnaud, V. Ducros, A. Favier and F. Hincal, “Iodine and/or Selenium Deficiency Alters Tissue Distribution Pattern of Other Trace Elements in Rats,” Biological Trace Element Research, Vol. 95, No. 3, 2003, pp. 247-258.
 N. Q. Liu, Q. Xu, X. L. Hou, P. S. Liu, Z. F. Chai, L. Zhu, et al., “The Distribution Patterns of Trace Elements in the Brain and Erythrocytes in a Rat Experimental Model of Iodine Deficiency,” Brain Research Bulletin, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2001, pp. 309-312.
 F. Zhang, N. Liu, X. Zhao, A. Zuo, L. Yang, Q. Xu, et al., “Variations of Elemental Distribution in Brain Regions of Neonatal Rats at Different Iodine Intakes,” Biological Trace Element Research, Vol. 90, No. 1-3, 2002, pp. 227-237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1385/BTER:90:1-3:227
 Y. Ge, R. Niu, J. Zhang and J. Wang, “Proteomic Analysis of Brain Proteins of Rats Exposed to High Xuoride and Low Iodine” Archives of Toxicology, Vol. 85, No. 1, 2011, pp. 27-33.
 A. G. Ferraz, F. E. del Rey, G. M. de Escobar, G. M. Innocenti and P. Berbel, “The Development of the Anterior Commissure in Normal and Hypothyroid Rats”, Developmental Brain Research, Vol. 81, No. 2, 1994, pp. 293-308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-3806(94)90315-8
 J. H. Mitchell, F. Nicol, G. J. Beckett and J. R. Arthur, “Selenoprotein Expression and Brain Development in Preweanling Seleniumand Iodine-Deficient Rats”, Journal of Molecular Endocrinology, Vol. 20, 1998, pp. 203210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1677/jme.0.0200203
 G. H. McIntosh, D. A. Howard, M. T. Mano, M. L. Wellby and B. S. Hetzel, “Iodine Deficiency and Brain Development in the Rat,” Australian Journal of Biological Sciences, Vol. 34, 1981, pp. 427-433.
 M. Hadjzadeh, A. K. Sinha, M. R. Pickard and R. P. Ekins, “Effect of Maternal Hypothyroxinaemia in the Rat on Brain Biochemistry in Adult Progeny,” Journal of Endocrinology, Vol. 124, 1990, pp. 387-396.
 V. J. Pop, E. P. Brouwers, H. L. Vader, T. Vulsma, A. L. van Baar and J. J. de Vijlder, “Maternal Hypothyroxinaemia during Early Pregnancy and Subsequent Child Development: A 3-Year Follow-Up Study,” Clinical Endocrinology, Vol. 59, 2003, pp. 282-288.
 R. P. Rooman, M. V. L. Du Caju, L. Op De Beeck, M. Docx, P. Van Reempts and K. J. Van Acker, “Low Thyroxinaemia Occurs in the Majority of Preterm Newborns,” European Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 155, No. 3, 1996, pp. 211-215.
 O. P. Soldin, “Hypothyroxinaemia, Iodine Deficiency, and Subtle Changes in Migration and Cytoarchitecture,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 112, 2004, pp. A268-A269.
 G. M. De Escobar, M. J. Obregon and F. E. del Rey, “Role of Thyroid Hormone during Early Brain Development,” European Journal of Endocrinology, Vol. 151, 2004, pp. U25-U37.
 F. Williams and R. Hume, “The Measurement, Definition, Aetiology and Clinical Consequences of Neonatal Transient Hypothyroxinaemia,” Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, Vol. 48, No. 1, 2011, pp. 7-22.
 K. Beardsall and A. L. Ogilvy-Stuart, “Congenital Hypothyroidism,” Current Paediatrics, Vol. 14, No. 5, 2004, pp. 422-429. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cupe.2004.05.006
 G. Cleghorn, “The Role of Red Meat in the Diet for Children and Adolescents,” Nutrition & Dietetics, Vol. 64, Suppl. 4, 2007, pp. S143-S146.
 J. Bernal, “Iodine and Brain Development,” BioFactors, Vol. 10, No. 2-3, 1999, pp. 271-276.
 J. P. Halpern, S. C. Boyages, G. F. Maberly, J. K. Collins, C. J. Eastman, J. G. L. Morris. “The Neurology of Endemic Cretinism: A Study of Two Endemias,” Brain, Vol. 114, 1991, pp. 825-841.
 X. Aijing and L. Tang, “Pituitary Hyperplasia in Children with Short Stature and Primary Hypothyroidism,” Indian Pediatrics, Vol. 47, No. 10, 2010, pp. 877-880.
 W. W. Ashley, J. G. Ojemann, T. S. Park, M. D. Wippold, “Primary Hypothyroidism in a 12-Year Old Girl with a Suprasellar Pituitary Mass: Rapid Regression After Thyroid Replacement Therapy—Case Report,” Journal of Neurosurgery, Vol. 102, No. 4, 2005, pp. 0413-416.
 I. I. Dedov, T. S. Zenkova, G. A. Mel’nichenko, O. I. Belichenko and I. D. Fedina, “The Potentials of Magnetic Resonance Tomography in the Diagnosis of the ‘Empty’ Sella Turcica,” Neuroscience and Behavioural Physiology, Vol. 24, No. 3, 1994, pp. 229-233.
 P. U. Ehirim, D. S. Kerr and A. R. Cohen, “Primary Hypothyroidism Mimicking a Pituitary Macroadenoma,” Pediatric Neurosurgery, Vol. 28, No. 4, 1998, pp. 195197.
 R. Garcia-Centeno, J. P. Suarez-Llanos, E. FernandezFernandez, V. Andia-Melero, P. Sanchez and A. JaraAlbarran, “Empty Sella and Primary Autoimmune Hypothyroidism,” Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2010, pp. 129-134.
 R. Goswami, N. Tandon, R. Sharma and N. Kochupillai, “Residual Pituitary Enlargement in Primary Hypothyroidism Despite 1 1/2 Years of L-Thyroxine Therapy,” Australasian Radiology, Vol. 43, No. 1, 1999, pp. 121123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1673.1999.00610.x
 J. M. Kroese, A. F. Grootendorst and L. J. D. M. Schelfhout, “Postpartum Amenorrhoea-Galactorrhoea Associated with Hyperprolactinaemia and Pituitary Enlargement in Primary Hypothyroidism,” The Netherlands Journal of Medicine, Vol. 62, No. 1, 2004, pp. 28-30.
 C. Y. Lee, H. H. Hsu, H. Y. Lai and S. T. Lee, “Rapid Progression of Hypothyroidism-Related Pituitary Hyperplasia,” Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2008, pp. 212-214.
 E. Passeri, A. Tufano, M. Locatelli, A. G. Lania, B. Ambrosi and S. Corbetta, “Large Pituitary Hyperplasia in Severe Primary Hypothyroidism,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 96, No. 1, 2011, pp. 22-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2010-2011
 P. J. Shogan and M. Monson, “Enlarged Sella of Primary Childhood Hypothyroidism,” Pediatric Radiology, Vol. 40, Suppl. 1, 2010, p. S163.
 M. Young, K. Kattner and K. Gupta, “Pituitary Hyperplasia Resulting from Primary Hypothyroidism Mimicking Macroadenomas,” British Journal of Neurosurgery, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1999, pp. 138-142.
 N. Sengupta, U. Sinha, K. Sinha Roy and S. Saha, “Acromegaly without Acral Changes: A Rare Presentation”, Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 16, No. 3, 2012, pp. 457-459.
 D. Dutta, I. Maisnam, S. Ghosh, P. Mukhopadhyay, S. Mukhopadhyay and S. Chowdhury, “Panhypopituitarism with Empty Sella a Sequel of Pituitary Hyperplasia Due to Chronic Primary Hypothyroidism,” Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 16, 2012, pp. S282S284.
 J. A. Atchison, P. A. Lee and A. L. Albright, “Reversible Suprasellar Pituitary Mass Secondary to Hypothyroidism,” JAMA, Vol. 262, No. 22, 1989, pp. 3175-3177.
 A. Agrawal and S. K. Diwan, “Pituitary Hyperplasia Resulting from Primary Hypothyroidism”, Asian Journal of Neurosurgery, Vol. 6, 2011, pp. 99-100.
 A. Akinci, K. Sarac, S. Gungor, I. Mungan and O. Aydin, “Brain MR Spectroscopy Findings in Neonates with Hypothyroidism Born to Mothers Living in Iodine-Deficient Areas,” American Journal of Neuroradiology, Vol. 27, No. 10, 2006, pp. 2083-2087.
 C. Alves, M. Eldson, H. Engle, J. Sheldon and W. W. Cleveland, “Changes in Brain Maturation Detected by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Congenital Hypothyroidism,” Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 115, No. 4, 1989, pp. 600-603. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3476(89)80292-6
 V. Blasi, R. Longaretta, C. Giovanettoni, C. Balodi, S. Pontesilli, C. Vigone, et al., “Decreased Parietal Cortex Activity during Mental Rotation in Children with Congenital Hypothyroidism,” Neuroendocrinology, Vol. 89, No. 4, 2009, pp. 56-65.
 M. P. Desai, R. U. Mehta, C. S. Choksi and M. P. Colaco, “Pituitary Enlargement on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Congenital Hypothyroidism,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Vol. 150, No. 6, 1996, pp. 623628. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.1996.02170310057010
 J. J. Graber, H. Lau and S. Sathe, “Teaching Neuroimages: Molar Tooth Sign with Hypotonia, Ataxia, and Nystagmus (Joubert Syndrome) and Hypothyroidism,” Neurology, Vol. 73, No. 24, 2009, p. e106.
 R. K. Gupta, V. Bhatia, H. Poptani and R. B. Gujral, “Brain Metabolite Changes on In Vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Children with Congenital Hypothyroidism,” Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 126, No. 3, 1995, pp. 389-392.
 L. Mauceri, M. Ruggieri, V. Pavone, R. Rizzo and G. Sorge, “Craniofacial Anomalies, Severe Cerebellar Hypoplasia, Psychomotor and Growth Delay in a Child with Congenital Hypothyroidism,” Clinical Dysmorphology, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1997, pp. 375-378.
 F. Fujiwara, K. Fujikura, K. Okuhara, J. Tsubaki, M. Fukushi, K. Fujita, et al., “Central Congenital Hypothyroidism Detected by Neonatal Screening in Sapporo, Japan (2000-2004): It’s Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics,” Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology, Vol. 17, No. 3, 2000, pp. 65-69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1297/cpe.17.65
 T. Tajima, F. Fujiwara, A. Sudo, S. Saito and K. Fujieda, “A Japanese Patient of Congenital Hypothyroidism with Cerebellar Atrophy,” Endocrine Journal, Vol. 54, No. 6, 2007, pp. 941-944.
 S. M. Wheeler, K. A. Willoughby, M. P. McAndrews and J. F. Rovet, “Hippocampal Size and Memory Functioning in Children and Adolescents with Congenital Hypothyroidism,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 96, No. 9, 2011, pp. E1427-E1434.
 S. M. Wheeler, M. P. McAndrews, E. D. Sheard and J. Rovet, “Visuospatial Associative Memory and Hippocampal Functioning in Congenital Hypothyroidism”, Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, Vol. 18, 2012, pp. 49-56.
 M. Tai, C. Lian, S. P. Qi, E. R. Heinz and G. R. DeLong, “Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brain and the Neuromotor Disorder in Endemic Cretinism,” Annals of Neurology, Vol. 34, No. 1, 1993, pp. 91-94.
 D. F. Zhu, Z. X. Wang, D. R. Zhang, Z. L. Pan, S. He, X. P. Hu, et al., “fMRI Revealed Neural Substrate for Reversible Working Memory Dysfunction in Subclinical Hypothyroidism,” Brain, Vol. 129, No. 11, 2006, pp. 2923-2930. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awl215
 M. Hasegawa, I. Kidac and H. Wadaa, “A Volumetric Analysis of the Brain and Hippocampus of Rats Rendered Perinatal Hypothyroid,” Neuroscience Letters, Vol. 479, No. 3, 2010, pp. 240-244.
 A. Liberati, D. G. Altman, J. Tetzlaff, C. Mulrow, P. C. Gotzche, J. P. A. Ioannidis, et al., “The PRISMA Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalyses of Studies that Evaluate healthcare Interventions: Explanation and Elaborations”, BMJ, Vol. 339, 2009, p. b2700.
 P. Whiting, A. W. S. Rutjes, J. B. Reitsma, P. M. M. Bossuyt and J. Kleijnen, “The development of QUADAS: A Tool for the Quality Assessment of Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy Included in Systematic Reviews,” Medical Research Methodology, Vol. 3, 2003 p. 25.
 E. Andrasi, C. Belavari, V. Stibilj, M. Dermelj and D. Gawlik, “Iodine Concentration in Different Human Brain Parts,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Vol. 378, No. 1, 2004, pp. 129-133.
 M. Andersson, V. Karumbunathan and M. B. Zimmer mann, “Global Iodine Status in 2011 and Trends over the Past Decade”, Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 142, No. 4, 2012, pp. 744-750.
 M. Bauer, D.H. S. Silverman, F. Schlagenhauf, E. D. London, C. L. Geist, K. van Herle, et al., “Brain Glucose Metabolism in Hypothyroidism: A Possitron Emission Tomography Study before and after Thyroid Hormone Replacement Therapy,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 94, 2009, pp. 2922-2929.
 E. L. Constant, A. G. De Volder, A. Ivanoiu, A. Bol, D. Labar, A. Seghers, et al., “Cerebral Blood Flow and Glucose Metabolism in Hypothyroidism: A Positron Emission Tomography Study,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 86, No. 8, 2001, pp. 38643870.
 Y. Krausz, N. Freedman, H. Lester, J. P. Newman, G. Barkai, M. Bocher, et al., “Regional cerebral blood flow in patients with mild hypothyroidism,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, Vol. 545, 2004, pp. 1712-1715.
 J. H. Callicott, V. S. Mattay, A. Bertolino, K. Finn, R. Coppola, J. A. Frank, et al., “Physiological Characteristics of Capacity Constraints in Working Memory as Revealed by Functional MRI,” Cerebral Cortex, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1999, pp. 20-26.