JEP  Vol.4 No.12 , December 2013
A Study of Heavy Metals in the Dust Fall around Assiut Fertilizer Plant
Abstract: A study of an environmental assessment of dust fall and the associated heavy metal contents was conducted during the period from the first of March 2011 to the end of February 2012 at adjoining area of a phosphate fertilizer plant. Around the industrial area 8 dust fall stations were established and one of them was built upwind far from pollution activities to be taken as a control sample. Dust fall samples collected monthly weighed and then prepared to be analyzed through Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) to obtain heavy metal concentration. Meteorological parameters influencing the distribution of dust fall such as wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, rain fall and pressure were determined. Results showed that deposition flow rates were 38.2. 47.5, 57.7, 44.3, 39.4, 38.2, 42.7 and 5.9 g/m2·month for the sites No., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 respectively, and were compared with the findings of other investigators of like industrial areas worldwide. Levels of heavy metal As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Hg in the deposited dust fall were 3.30, 26.46, 22.33, 235.00, 4.53 and 3.80 μg/g respectively. Enrichment coefficients of the heavy metals in the dust fall were found to be significant and reached the values 1.81, 0.90, 0.85, 0.65, 0.41 and 0.35 for zinc, lead, cadmium, copper, mercury and arsenic respectively. The paper ends with results and recommendations suggesting a methodology to remediate the investigated area polluted with heavy metals and control measures for the fertilizer plant to reduce pollution into the surrounding environment.
Cite this paper: T. Mohamed, M. Mohamed, R. Rabeiy and M. Ghandour, "A Study of Heavy Metals in the Dust Fall around Assiut Fertilizer Plant," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 12, 2013, pp. 1488-1494. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.412170.

[1]   R. L. Solomon and W. Hartford, “Lead and Cadmium in Dusts and Soils in a Small Urban Community,” Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 10, No. 8, 1979, pp. 773-777.

[2]   S. A. Raoof and M. Al-Shahhaf, “Study of Particulate Pollutants in the Air of Riyadh by Energy Dispersive x-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 26, No. 3, 1992, pp. 421-423.

[3]   K. T. Hindy and S. A. Farag, “Composition of Suspended and Settled Particulate Matter from the Atmosphere: A Comparative Study,” Environmental Pollution Series B, Chemical and Physical, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1983, pp. 247-254.

[4]   V. Valkovic, “Trace Elements in Coal,” CCRC Press, Florida, 1983.

[5]   P. K. Goel and R. K. Trivedy, “An Introduction to Air Pollution,” Technoscience Publication, Jaipur, 1998.

[6]   A. Savant, “Study of Some Toxic Metals in Surface Soils in Relation to Environmental Factors,” Ph.D. Thesis, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, 1990.

[7]   X. Querol, A. Aastuey, J. A. Puicercus, E. Mantilla, F. Plana and R. Juan, “Seasonal Evaluation of Suspended Particles around a Large Coal-Fired Power Station: Chemical Characterization,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 32, No. 11, 1998, pp. 719-731.

[8]   E. A. Ali, M. N. Nasralla and A. A. Skakour, “Spatial and Seasonal Variation of Lead in Cairo Atmosphere,” Environmental Pollution Series B, Chemical and Physical, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1986, pp. 205-210.

[9]   M. N. Nasralla, “Lead in Jeddah Urban Dust,” Environmental Pollution Series B, Chemical and Physical, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1984, pp. 133-141.

[10]   Z. Kozak, J. Nieko and D. Kozak, “Precipitation of Heavy Metals in the Lezna-Wlodawa Lake Region,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 133, No. 1-2, 1993, pp. 183-192.

[11]   K. T. Hindyn, “Silicon, Aluminum, Iron, Copper and Zinc Levels in Desert Soil-Related Dust Deposits in Cairo,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1991, pp. 213-217.

[12]   R. A. Tripath, S. C. Ashawa and R. N. Khandekar, “Atmospheric Deposition of pb, cd, cu and zinc in Bombay, India,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1993, pp. 269-273.

[13]   M. F. El-Gandour, M. S. Adel Salam, K. T. Hindy and M. M. Kamel, “Studies on Air Pollution from Construction Plants in the Helwan Industrial Area. III. Alkali, Earth Alkali and Heavy Metal Constituents of Dust-Fall,” Environmental Pollution Series B, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1982, pp. 303-313.

[14]   Th. A. Taha, A. K. M. Mohamed and M. A. Gandour, “Environmental Assessment and Control of Air Emissions Related in Sugar Industry,” M.Sc. Thesis, Environmental Sciences and Technology, Sugar Technology Research Institute, Assiut University, Assiut, 2009.

[15]   American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM US-EPA), “Test Method for Collection and Measurement of Dust Fall,” Conshohocken, 2004.

[16]   R. O. Glibert, “Statistical Pollution Monitoring,” John Wiley Publication, New York, 1987.

[17]   N. Dubey and S. Pervez, “Investigation of Variation on Ambient PM10 Levels within Urban-Industrial Environment,” Aerosol and Air Quality Research, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2008, pp. 54-64.

[18]   R. K. Sharma and S. Pervez, “A Case Study of Spatial Variation and Enrichment of Selected Elements in Ambient Particulate Matter around a Large Coal-Fired Power Station in Central India,” Environmental Geochemistry and Health, Vol. 26, No. 3-4, 2004, pp. 373-381.

[19]   Y. F. Quraishi and G. S. Pandy, “Exposure of Steel Plant Related Dusts in Domestic Environments in Bhilai Residential Area,” Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 13, No. 8, 1993, pp. 580-583.

[20]   J. Injuk, R. Van Grieken and G. de Leeuw, “Deposition of Atmospheric Trace Elements into the North Sea: Coasta, Ship, Platform Measurements and Model Predictions,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 32, No. 17, 1998, pp. 3011-3025.

[21]   A. Jiries, T. El-Hasan and W. Manasrah, “Qualitative Evaluation of the Mineralogical and Chemical Composition of Dry Deposition in the Central and Southern Highlands of Jordan,” Chemosphere, Vol. 48, No. 9, 2002, pp. 933-938.

[22]   A. M. Thabet, A. R. Rabeiy, A.-K. M. Mohamed and M. A. Ghandour, “Environmental Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution from Phosphate Fertilizer Plants,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Sugar Technology Research Institute, Assiut University, Assiut, 2013.

[23]   A. D. Bhanarkar, P. S. Rao, D. G. Gajghate and P. Nema, “Inventory of SO2, PM and Toxic Metal Emissions from Industrial Sources in Greater Mumbai, India,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 39, No. 21, 2005, pp. 3851-3864.

[24]   D. Narayan, M. Agrawal, J. Pandy and J. Singh, “Changes in Vegetation Characteristics Downwind of an Aluminium Factory in India,” Annals of Botany, Vol. 73, No. 5, 1994, pp. 557-565.

[25]   South African National Standards (SANS), “South African National Standard, Ambient Air Quality-Limits for Common Pollutants,” Standards South Africa, Pretoria.